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Geothermal Power Plants, 4th Edition

Book Description

Now in its 4th edition, this single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation using fundamental scientific and engineering principles. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of global case studies from real plants and applications from around the world that increase your understanding of geothermal energy conversion and provide a unique compilation of hard-to-obtain data and experience. Technical, economic and business aspects presented in case studies provide current and up-and-coming geothermal developers and entrepreneurs with a solid understanding of opportunities and pitfalls. Geothermal Power Plants, 4th Edition, presents state-of-the-art geothermal developments and experience of real applications for professionals, and a comprehensive reference for theory and practice.

  • Important new and revised content on double- and triple-flash steam power plants, plant and well pumps, and biomass-geothermal and solar-geothermal hybrid systems
  • New chapters on global case studies with comprehensive and up-to-date statistics, including New Zealand, Indonesia, Central America and the Caribbean, and the state of Nevada, USA, plus updated chapters on Larderello (Italy), The Geysers (USA), Turkey and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) make this useable and relevant for a global audience
  • Revised and additional practice problems with emphasis on system simulation using electronic equations of state for working fluid properties. SI units are now used exclusively

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword to the Fourth Edition
  7. Preface and Acknowledgements to the Fourth Edition
    1. What’s New in the Fourth Edition?
    2. A Few Observations
    3. A Newcomer’s Introduction to Geothermal Power Conversion
    4. Acknowledgments
  8. Preface and Acknowledgements to the Third Edition
  9. Preface and Acknowledgements to the Second Edition
  10. Preface and Acknowledgements to the First Edition
  11. Part 1: Resource Identification and Development
    1. Part 1. Resource Identification and Development
    2. Chapter 1. Geology of Geothermal Regions
      1. Abstract
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 The Earth and its Atmosphere
      4. 1.3 Active Geothermal Regions
      5. 1.4 Model of a Hydrothermal Geothermal Resource
      6. 1.5 Other Types of Geothermal Resources
      7. References
      8. Problems
    3. Chapter 2. Exploration Strategies and Techniques
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Objectives of an Exploration Program
      4. 2.3 Phases of an Exploration Program
      5. 2.4 Synthesis and Interpretation
      6. 2.5 The Next Step: Drilling
      7. References
      8. Problems
    4. Chapter 3. Geothermal Well Drilling
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Site Preparation and Drilling Equipment
      4. 3.3 Drilling Operations
      5. 3.4 Safety Precautions
      6. References
      7. Problems
    5. Chapter 4. Reservoir Engineering
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Reservoir and Well Flow
      4. 4.3 Well Testing
      5. 4.4 Calcite Scaling in Well Casings
      6. 4.5 Reservoir Modeling and Simulation
      7. 4.6 Reinjection
      8. References
      9. Problems
  12. Part 2: Geothermal Power Generating Systems
    1. Part 2. Geothermal Power Generating Systems
    2. Chapter 5. Single-Flash Steam Power Plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Gathering System Design Considerations
      4. 5.3 Energy Conversion System
      5. 5.4 Thermodynamics of the Conversion Process
      6. 5.5 Example: Single-Flash Optimization
      7. 5.6 Optimum Separator Temperature: An Approximate Formulation
      8. 5.7 Environmental Aspects for Single-Flash Plants
      9. 5.8 Equipment List for Single-Flash Plants
      10. References
      11. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 5
      12. Problems
    3. Chapter 6. Double- and Triple-Flash Steam Power Plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Gathering System Design Considerations
      4. 6.3 Energy Conversion Systems
      5. 6.4 Thermodynamics of the Conversion Processes
      6. 6.5 Example: Double-Flash Optimization
      7. 6.6 Scale Potential in Waste Brine
      8. 6.7 Environmental Aspects for Double- and Triple-Flash Plants
      9. 6.8 Equipment List for Double- and Triple-Flash Plants
      10. References
      11. Problems
    4. Chapter 7. Dry-Steam Power Plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Origins and Nature of Dry-Steam Resources
      4. 7.3 Steam Gathering System
      5. 7.4 Energy Conversion System
      6. 7.5 Example: Optimum Wellhead Pressure
      7. 7.6 Environmental Aspects of Dry-Steam Plants
      8. 7.7 Equipment List for Dry-Steam Plants
      9. References
      10. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 7
      11. Problems
    5. Chapter 8. Binary Cycle Power Plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Basic Binary Systems
      4. 8.3 Working Fluid Selection
      5. 8.4 Advanced Binary Cycles
      6. 8.5 Example of Binary Cycle Analysis
      7. 8.6 Environmental Impact of Binary Cycles
      8. 8.7 Equipment List for Basic Binary Plants
      9. 8.8 Pumps
      10. References
      11. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 8
      12. Problems
    6. Chapter 9. Advanced Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Hybrid Single-Flash and Double-Flash Systems
      4. 9.3 Hybrid Flash-Binary Systems
      5. 9.4 Example: Integrated Flash-Binary Hybrid System
      6. 9.5 Total-Flow Systems
      7. 9.6 Hybrid Fossil-Geothermal Systems
      8. 9.7 Combined Heat and Power Plants
      9. 9.8 Power Plants for Hypersaline Brines
      10. 9.9 Solar-Geothermal Hybrid Plants
      11. References
      12. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 9
      13. Problems
    7. Chapter 10. Exergy Analysis Applied to Geothermal Power Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 First Law for Open, Steady Systems
      4. 10.3 Second Law for Open, Steady Systems
      5. 10.4 Exergy
      6. 10.5 Exergy Accounting for Open, Steady Systems
      7. 10.6 Exergy Efficiencies and Applications to Geothermal Plants
      8. 10.7 Thermal Versus Utilization Efficiency for Geothermal Plants
      9. References
      10. Problems
  13. Part 3: Geothermal Power Plant Case Studies
    1. Part 3. Geothermal Power Plant Case Studies
    2. Chapter 11. Larderello Dry-Steam Power Plants, Tuscany, Italy
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 History of Development
      3. 11.2 Geology and Reservoir Characteristics
      4. 11.3 Power Plants
      5. 11.4 Mitigation of Environmental Impact
      6. References
      7. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 11
    3. Chapter 12. The Geysers Dry-Steam Power Plants, Sonoma and Lake Counties, California, USA
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 History and Early Power Plants
      3. 12.2 Geographic and Geologic Setting
      4. 12.3 Well Drilling
      5. 12.4 Steam Pipeline System
      6. 12.5 Power Plants
      7. 12.6 Recharging the Reservoir
      8. 12.7 Toward Sustainability
      9. References
    4. Chapter 13. Geothermal Power Plants of New Zealand
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 History of Geothermal Development in New Zealand
      3. 13.2 Wairakei and Related Power Stations
      4. 13.3 Rotokawa and NAP Power Plants
      5. 13.4 Other Geothermal Plants
      6. 13.5 Outlook for Development
      7. References
      8. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 13
    5. Chapter 14. Geothermal Power Plants of Indonesia
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Geographic and Geologic Setting
      3. 14.2 Early Geothermal Development
      4. 14.3 Kamojang and Darajat Power Stations
      5. 14.4 Wayang Windu Power Plant
      6. 14.5 Other Geothermal Plants
      7. 14.6 Outlook for Development
      8. References
      9. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 14
    6. Chapter 15. Geothermal Power Plants in Central America and the Caribbean
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Geologic Setting
      3. 15.2 History of Development
      4. 15.3 El Salvador
      5. 15.4 Nicaragua
      6. 15.5 Costa Rica
      7. 15.6 Guatemala
      8. 15.7 Other Central American Prospects
      9. 15.8 Caribbean Islands
      10. 15.9 South American Prospects
      11. References
      12. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 15
    7. Chapter 16. Geothermal Power Plants in Nevada, USA
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Geologic Setting
      3. 16.2 Brief History of Development
      4. 16.3 Steamboat Geothermal Power Complex
      5. 16.4 Flash Plants
      6. 16.5 Binary Plants
      7. 16.6 Stillwater Plants
      8. 16.7 Lessons Learned from Nevada’s Experience
      9. References
      10. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 16
    8. Chapter 17. Heber Binary Plants, Imperial Valley, California, USA
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Exploration and Discovery
      4. 17.3 The First Heber Binary Plant
      5. 17.4 The Second Heber Binary Plant
      6. References
      7. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 17
    9. Chapter 18. Magmamax Binary Power Plant, East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Setting and Exploration
      3. 18.2 Magmamax Binary Power Plant
      4. 18.3 Modified Magmamax Binary Power Plant
      5. 18.4 Conclusion
      6. References
    10. Chapter 19. Nesjavellir and Hellisheidi Plants, Iceland
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Geology and Geosciences
      4. 19.3 Nesjavellir Power Plant
      5. 19.4 Hellisheidi Power Plant
      6. References
    11. Chapter 20. Raft River Plants, Idaho, USA
      1. Abstract
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Geology and Geosciences
      4. 20.3 Original Development—DOE Pilot Plant
      5. 20.4 New Development—USGeo Plant
      6. References
    12. Chapter 21. Geothermal Power Plants in Turkey
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Geologic Setting
      3. 21.2 Kızıldere Single-Flash Plant
      4. 21.3 Salavatlı Binary Plants
      5. 21.4 Germencik Double-Flash Plant
      6. 21.5 Pamukören Binary Plant
      7. 21.6 Environmental Impact
      8. 21.7 Current State and Future Prospects of Geothermal Power
      9. References
      10. Nomenclature for Figures in Chapter 21
    13. Chapter 22. Enhanced Geothermal Systems—Projects and Plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Definitions
      3. 22.2 Early Projects
      4. 22.3 Later Projects
      5. 22.4 EGS Power Plants
      6. 22.5 Proposed Projects
      7. References
    14. Chapter 23. Environmental Impact of Geothermal Power Plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 Overview
      3. 23.2 Regulations
      4. 23.3 General Impacts of Electricity Generation
      5. 23.4 Environmental Advantages of Geothermal Plants
      6. 23.5 Environmental Challenges of Geothermal Plants
      7. 23.6 Summary
      8. References
  14. Appendix A. Worldwide State of Geothermal Power Plant Development as of December 2014
  15. Appendix B. Units Conversions
  16. Appendix C. Energy Equivalents
  17. Appendix D. Elements of Thermodynamics
    1. D.1 Purpose
    2. D.2 Systems and Properties
    3. D.3 First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems
    4. D.4 First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems
    5. D.5 Second Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems
    6. D.6 Second Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems
    7. D.7 Thermodynamic State Diagrams
  18. Appendix E. Answers to Selected Practice Problems
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
  19. Appendix F. REFPROP Tutorial with Application to Geothermal Binary Cycles
    1. F.1 Introduction
    2. F.2 Typical Geothermal Binary Power Cycle
    3. F.3 REFPROP State-Point Properties
    4. F.4 REFPROP as an Excel Function
    5. Reference
  20. Index