This chapter covers the human threats to, and impacts on, supply chains resulting from a range of criminal activities. This includes theft, piracy, and terrorism. Building on the idea that supply chains represent linkages among organizations which serve to add value as inputs are turned into outputs, these points of contact and exchange are shown to be targets for criminal activity. Also discussed are natural threats in order to introduce the role of the environment in supply chain security. Items in storage or in transit are examined with respect to vulnerability to the weather and to earthquakes. This includes the current state of the infrastructure over which supply chain activities occur.