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Graphene Nanomaterials by Kal R. Sharma

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Chapter 2

Characterization

Chapter Objectives

SAXS, small-angle X-ray scattering

TEM, transmission electron microscope

Surface electron microscope

SPM, scanning probe microscope, applications

Microwave spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy

STM, scanning tunneling microscope

AFM, atomic force microscope

Auger electron microscopy

HeIM, helium ion microscope

XRD, X-ray diffraction

Overview

Characterization of nanostructures such as single-layer graphene (SG) sheets needs suitable instruments. The resolution limits of optical microscopes cannot be greater than the order of magnitude of wavelength of light. As per the Raleigh criterion,1 the resolution limit using optical devices is 200 nm—half the wavelength of light. X-ray devices ...

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