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Graphene Nanomaterials by Kal R. Sharma

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Chapter 4

Stability

Chapter Objectives

Interfacial stability

Euler stability

Island growth

Epitaxial substrate—atomic bonding

Scroll stability

Free energy of reaction

Thermodynamic stability

Edge stability/hole formation

Defects

Buckling and fracture

Metastability

Continuous Monolayers and Epitaxial Substrates

Many attempts have been made in order to prepare ultrathin films. For all practical purposes, the collective experience of several investigators indicates that continuous monolayers are nearly impossible to make. When a metal film that is few nanometers in thickness is evaporated, the film is found to become discontinuous. Islands/holes are formed in the material structure. Island growth has been attributed to minimization ...

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