12 Grid Computing Products and Services
integrable and must have autonomic capabilities. Grid computing leverages on
demand because it is a fundamental component to achieve the highest degree of
virtualization, one of the key factors of the on demand operating environment.
Grid is also leveraged when its implementation complies with open standards; it
is integrated into the business processes of the organization, and its components
have autonomic abilities.
Grid and UMI
In an on demand enterprise, once the business and the IT infrastructure are
flexible, it is possible to think of new ways to make the IT services and other
enterprise services profitable. UMI (Utility Management Infrastructure) is a model
or specification of how the IT services can be acquired and paid as though they
were a service provided by a traditional utility. Utilities use the “pay per usage”
payment method. UMI conceptually establishes what components a utility must
have to provide IT services and their consumers pay per usage. It means
variable costs for the clients. It also means, for the IT utility provider, that the
infrastructure can be reused and shared. Grid computing capabilities are a
reasonable option to implement an IT utility, but not the only choice. Grid
provides provisioning, metering, billing, and mechanisms to use idle resources,
sharing of portions of resources, and security and management. All of them are
required qualities to implement an infrastructure aligned with UMI.
Grid and virtualization
Virtualization is the ability to provide a unified vision of a set of resources. These
resources may be geographically distributed, run on different technologies, and
developed by different vendors. Virtualization is one of the key elements of the on
demand operating environment, and essential on grid implementations. More
information about on demand operating environment can be found at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/
Grid and provisioning
As explained in “Provisioning” on page 86, provisioning mechanisms can provide
on demand additional resources to the grid. Alternately, the grid can provide
resources as well. Both can live independently, coexist in the same infrastructure,
and be leveraged if they are well integrated.
1.2 Categories and functions
Grid computing is a concept that can be studied in several ways. The information
contained in this redbook has been classified and analyzed according to cross
criteria, categories, and functions.
Chapter 1. Introduction 13
Categories are related to the layers in a grid stack products’ portfolio, as shown in
Figure 1-1. Categories help the reader relate products with their role and scope
within a grid. IT Architects will find the categories to be a technical reference to
help them find the right products for their solutions. Categories will also be useful
to understand the scope of the professional services that should be implemented
to satisfy the requirements of a solution. IT architects must consider business,
functional, and non-functional requirements that should be fulfilled by the
infrastructure and the services that a product and a category of the grid layer can
provide.
1.2.1 Categorization of components
The layer structure, or grid stack (Figure 1-1), of the grid components is an
creation of the traditional IT industry.
Figure 1-1 Grid stack products’ portfolio
Application
This layer describes an environment for developed applications to take
advantage of the whole set of features provided by the grid. Applications can
make use of all layers in the stack, through classes, APIs, frameworks, toolkits, or
Software Development Kit (SDKs).
Grid Middleware
File and Block Data Virtualization
Structured Data Virtualization
Job Scheduling
Software licensing
Systems Management
Workload Management
Task Scheduling
Orchestration and Provisioning
Billing and Metering
Content Management
Applications
Grid Middleware
File and Block Data Virtualization
Structured Data Virtualization
Job Scheduling
Software licensing
Systems Management
Workload Management
Task Scheduling
Orchestration and Provisioning
Billing and Metering
Content Management
Applications

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