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Ground Improvement Case-Histories

Book Description

Written by a group of international contributors, Ground Improvement Case Histories: Embankments with Special Reference to Soil Consolidation and Other Physical Methods, employs the use of case-histories to illustrate and apply equations, numerical methods and technology to undertake even the most complicated ground improvement projects. In this book, each case-history provides an overview of the specific technology followed by field applications and in some cases comprehensive back-analysis through numerical modelling. Specific embankment case-histories with special reference to soil consolidation included are: Ballina Bypass (Australia), Tianjin Port (China), Second Bangkok International Airport (Thailand), Changi East reclamation (Singapore), Maizuru-Wakasa Expressway (Japan) and Colombo Airport Expressway, Sri Lanka. Other physical methods include performance of stone columns at Penny’s Bay reclamation in Hong Kong and PCC piles for highway and high-speed railway construction in China, among others.



  • Provides a wealth of contributor-generated case histories from all over the world

  • Includes an abundance of illustrations and worked out examples

  • All inclusive discussion of preloading, vertical drains and vacuums applications

  • Features case-histories regarding sand and gravel piles, stone columns and other Rigid Inclusions

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contributors
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
  9. Part One: Preloading, Vertical Drains, and Vacuum Application
    1. Chapter 1: Recent Advances in Soft Soil Consolidation
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 1.1 Introduction
      4. 1.2 Principles of vacuum consolidation via prefabricated vertical drains
      5. 1.3 Case histories
      6. 1.4 Design charts for prefabricated vertical drains
      7. 1.5 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 2: Experience of Consolidation Process from Test Areas with and without Vertical Drains
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Theoretical approach
      4. 2.3 Results obtained in test areas
      5. 2.4 Conclusion
      6. 2.5 Notations
    3. Chapter 3: Theoretical and Numerical Perspectives and Field Observations for the Design and Performance Evaluation of Embankments Constructed on Soft Marine Clay
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 3.1 Introduction
      4. 3.2 Installation and monitoring of vertical drains
      5. 3.3 Drain properties
      6. 3.4 Factors influencing the vertical drain efficiency
      7. 3.5 Development of vertical drain theory
      8. 3.6 2D modeling of vertical drains
      9. 3.7 Simple 1D modeling of vertical drains
      10. 3.8 A finite element model perspective for general design
      11. 3.9 Performance of test embankments constructed on soft marine clay in malaysia
      12. 3.10 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 4: Application of the Vacuum Preloading Method in Soil Improvement Projects
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Mechanism of vacuum preloading
      4. 4.3 Case I: Soil improvement for an oil storage station
      5. 4.4 Case II: Soil improvement for a storage yard
      6. 4.5 Specific issues
      7. 4.6 Conclusion
    5. Chapter 5: Two Case Histories of Vertical Drains in Very Soft Clays
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Sarapuí trial embankment II
      4. 5.3 Barra da Tijuca embankment
      5. 5.4 Conclusion
    6. Chapter 6: Case Study of Ground Improvement Work at the Suvarnabhumi Airport of Thailand
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 6.1 Introduction
      4. 6.2 Subsoil conditions
      5. 6.3 History of geotechnical study at the suvarnabhumi airport site
      6. 6.4 The ground improvement projects
      7. 6.5 The design concept
      8. 6.6 Construction procedures
      9. 6.7 Instrumentations
      10. 6.8 Summary of monitoring data interpretation
      11. 6.9 Evaluation of ground improvement performance
      12. 6.10 Conclusion
    7. Chapter 7: Predictions and Observations of Soft Clay Foundations Stabilized with Geosynthetic Drains and Vacuum Surcharge
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 7.1 Introduction
      4. 7.2 Theoretical background
      5. 7.3 Single drain analysis
      6. 7.4 Application of model to case histories
      7. 7.5 Conclusion
      8. 7.6 Notations
    8. Chapter 8: Application of Analytical Method for Preloading: Design of Selected Case Studies
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Analytical approach using bjerrum’s concept
      4. 8.3 Case study 1
      5. 8.4 Case study 2
      6. 8.5 Further development
      7. 8.6 Conclusion
      8. 8.7 Notation
    9. Chapter 9: The Changi East Reclamation Project in Singapore
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Reclamation process
      4. 9.3 Site conditions
      5. 9.4 Soil improvement works
      6. 9.5 Conclusion
    10. Chapter 10: High Pressure for Vacuum Consolidation Method Using Air-Water Separation System
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 10.1 Introduction
      4. 10.2 Loss of vacuum pressure
      5. 10.3 Air-water separation concept
      6. 10.4 Case history of air-water separation
      7. 10.5 Special case history
      8. 10.6 Conclusion
    11. Chapter 11: Case studies of Vacuum Consolidation Ground Improvement in Peat Deposits
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 11.1 Vacuum consolidation technique
      4. 11.2 Peat deposits: geotechnical properties
      5. 11.3 Review of vacuum consolidation in peat deposits
      6. 11.4 Vacuum consolidation trial at ballydermot bog in Ireland
      7. 11.5 Discussion
      8. 11.6 Summary and Conclusion
      9. 11.7 Notation
    12. Chapter 12: Interpretation of Penetration Resistance Data Associated with PVD Installation for Predicting Differential Settlement in Soft Ground
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 12.1 Introduction
      4. 12.2 Penetration resistance data associated with pvd installation
      5. 12.3 Interpretation of penetration resistance
      6. 12.4 Identification of sandy layers
      7. 12.5 Prediction of differential settlement
      8. 12.6 Conclusion
    13. Chapter 13: Prediction of Embankments’ Time-Dependent Behavior on Soft Soils: Effects of Preloading, Surcharging, and Choice of Lab Versus Field Test Data for Soft Soil Parameters
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 13.1 Introduction
      4. 13.2 Subsurface conditions of embankment
      5. 13.3 Compression index and consolidation properties
      6. 13.4 Permeability
      7. 13.5 Preconsolidation pressure
      8. 13.6 Acid sulfate tests of NBR embankment
      9. 13.7 Constitutive model
      10. 13.8 Observed and predicted field responses
      11. 13.9 Conclusion
    14. Chapter 14: Application of a New Vacuum Preloading Method for Tideland Reclamation in Wenzhou, China
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Subsoil conditions
      4. 14.3 Soil improvement procedure
      5. 14.4 Monitored data
      6. 14.5 Evaluation of degree of consolidation
      7. 14.6 Conclusion
    15. Chapter 15: Key Issues in the Application of Vertical Drains for Sea Reclamation Using Extremely Soft Clay Slurry
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 15.1 Introduction
      4. 15.2 Seawalls surrounding the reclaimed land
      5. 15.3 Construction flow and key issues
      6. 15.4 Prediction and performance: reclamation process and consolidation process under the fill load
      7. 15.5 Residual settlement
      8. 15.6 Conclusion
  10. Part Two: Sand and Gravel Piles, Stone Columns, and Other Rigid Inclusions
    1. Chapter 16: Performance of Soft Clays Reinforced by Floating Columns
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Statement of problem
      4. 16.3 Principle of design
      5. 16.4 Case studies
      6. 16.5 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 17: Geotextile-Encased Columns: Case Studies over Twenty Years
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 17.1 Introduction
      4. 17.2 Railroad embankment at waltershof, 1995
      5. 17.3 Extension of airbus site, 2000–2002
      6. 17.4 Railroad embankment bothnia line, 2001–2002
      7. 17.5 High-speed rail link, 2002
      8. 17.6 Bastions vijwal houten, 2005
      9. 17.7 Thyssenkrupp CSA steel plant, 2006–2010
      10. 17.8 A2 Motorway embankment, 2010–2011
      11. 17.9 Other case studies
      12. 17.10 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 18: New Analytical Approach for Predicting Horizontal Displacement of Stone Columns
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Conventional design approaches
      4. 18.3 Idealized 2D modeling approach
      5. 18.4 Stress concentration of stone columns under flexible embankment loading
      6. 18.5 Modeling of fill embankment over soft clay treated with stone columns
      7. 18.6 Instrumented trial embankment on stone-column-treated soft ground at kooragang island
      8. 18.7 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 19: Settlement Behavior of Embankment on Soft Ground Treated with Stepped Rigid Columns
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Numerical modeling
      4. 19.3 Analytical design methodology
      5. 19.4 Analysis results and discussion
      6. 19.5 Design charts
      7. 19.6 Conclusion
    5. Chapter 20: Pullout Resistance of Grouted Soil Nails
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 20.1 Introduction
      4. 20.2 Behavior and design of soil-nailing system
      5. 20.3 Laboratory pullout testing on grouted soil nails
      6. 20.4 Effect of overburden pressure
      7. 20.5 Effect of degree of saturation
      8. 20.6 Effect of pressure grouting in unsaturated condition
      9. 20.7 Effects of overburden and grouting pressure in a saturated condition
      10. 20.8 Estimation of pullout resistance using the bayesian approach
      11. 20.9 Conclusion
    6. Chapter 21: Improvement of Soft Soil Formations by Drilled Displacement Columns
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Design of drilled displacement columns as rigid inclusions
      4. 21.3 Construction and installation process
      5. 21.4 Verification of drilled displacement columns
      6. 21.5 Potential issues: heave and lateral movement
      7. 21.6 Case studies
      8. 21.7 Conclusion
    7. Chapter 22: Applications of PCC Piles for Highway and High-Speed Railway Construction in China
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 22.1 Introduction
      4. 22.2 Development of PCC pile technique
      5. 22.3 Large-scale model tests
      6. 22.4 Case study 1: soil improvement for highway
      7. 22.5 Case study 2: soil improvement for high-speed railway
      8. 22.6 Conclusion
    8. Chapter 23: Implementation and Performance of Stone Columns at Penny’s Bay Reclamation in Hong Kong
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 23.1 Introduction
      4. 23.2 Background
      5. 23.3 The site
      6. 23.4 Ground conditions
      7. 23.5 The design approach
      8. 23.6 The design
      9. 23.7 Installation of stone columns
      10. 23.8 Instrumentation
      11. 23.9 Behavior of the treated ground
      12. 23.10 Method of analysis of settlements prior to surcharge removal
      13. 23.11 Discussion
      14. 23.12 Conclusion
    9. Chapter 24: Failures of Ground Improvement Works in Soft Ground
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Embankments treated using the vacuum preloading method
      4. 24.3 Failures of embankments supported by stone columns
      5. 24.4 Long-term “mushroom” problem for a piled embankment with individual pile caps
      6. 24.5 Conclusion
    10. Chapter 25: Characteristics of Soft Peats, Organic Soils, and Clays, Colombo–Katunayake Expressway in Sri Lanka
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 25.1 Introduction
      4. 25.2 Project description
      5. 25.3 Site geology
      6. 25.4 Geotechnical investigations
      7. 25.5 Soft ground treatment and instrumentation
      8. 25.6 Back-analysis
      9. 25.7 Characteristics of soft soils
      10. 25.8 Conclusion
      11. Appendix Summary of laboratory test results
    11. Chapter 26: Theoretical and Numerical Perspectives on Performance of Stone-Column-Improved Soft Ground with Reference to Transport Infrastructure
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgement
      3. 26.1 Introduction
      4. 26.2 Review of past investigations
      5. 26.3 Numerical solution
      6. 26.4 Validation
      7. 26.5 Parametric studies
      8. 26.6 Case study with design recommendations
      9. 26.7 Lateral deformation of columns
      10. 26.8 Introduction to discrete element modeling
      11. 26.9 Influence of cyclic loading
      12. 26.10 Conclusion
  11. Index