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Hacking: The Art of Exploitation, 2nd Edition by Jon Erickson

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Chapter 0x600. COUNTERMEASURES

The golden poison dart frog secretes an extremely toxic poison—one frog can emit enough to kill 10 adult humans. The only reason these frogs have such an amazingly powerful defense is that a certain species of snake kept eating them and developing a resistance. In response, the frogs kept evolving stronger and stronger poisons as a defense. One result of this co-evolution is that the frogs are safe against all other predators. This type of co-evolution also happens with hackers. Their exploit techniques have been around for years, so it's only natural that defensive countermeasures would develop. In response, hackers find ways to bypass and subvert these defenses, and then new defense techniques are created.

This ...

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