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Handbook of Design in Educational Technology by Niall Winters, Joshua Underwood, Barbara L Grabowski, Peter Goodyear, Sadhana Puntambekar, Rosemary Luckin

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11 Empowering Teachers to Design Learning Resources with Metacognitive Interface Elements

Judy Kay, Sabina Kleitman, and Roger Azevedo

1 Introduction

Metacognition refers to the executive processes of reflecting on and regulating one’s own thinking, that is, ‘thinking about thinking’ (Flavell, 1979). These processes, central to learning, are one of the three fundamentals of self-regulated learning (Schraw et al., 2006). This makes it important for most learning contexts and especially for the many uses of digital learning resources for independent and lifelong learning (Azevedo et al., 2012; Kay, 2008). Given its importance, it is unsurprising that there is a large body of research about metacognition; for example, see reviews (Dunlosky & Bjork, ...

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