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Handbook of Environmental Engineering

Book Description

A comprehensive guide for both fundamentals and real-world applications of environmental engineering

Written by noted experts, Handbook of Environmental Engineering offers a comprehensive guide to environmental engineers who desire to contribute to mitigating problems, such as flooding, caused by extreme weather events, protecting populations in coastal areas threatened by rising sea levels, reducing illnesses caused by polluted air, soil, and water from improperly regulated industrial and transportation activities, promoting the safety of the food supply.  

Contributors not only cover such timely environmental topics related to soils, water, and air, minimizing pollution created by industrial plants and processes, and managing wastewater, hazardous, solid, and other industrial wastes, but also treat such vital topics as porous pavement design, aerosol measurements, noise pollution control, and industrial waste auditing. This important handbook:

  • Enables environmental engineers to treat problems in systematic ways
  • Discusses climate issues in ways useful for environmental engineers
  • Covers up-to-date measurement techniques important in environmental engineering
  • Reviews current developments in environmental law for environmental engineers
  • Includes information on water quality and wastewater engineering
  • Informs environmental engineers about methods of dealing with industrial and municipal waste, including hazardous waste

Designed for use by practitioners, students, and researchers, Handbook of Environmental Engineering contains the most recent information to enable a clear understanding of major environmental issues.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Preface
  3. 1 Environmental Systems Analysis
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Environmental Systems Analysis Methods
    3. 1.3 Summary
    4. References
  4. 2 Measurements in Environmental Engineering
    1. Summary
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Environmental Sampling Approaches
    4. 2.3 Laboratory Analysis
    5. 2.4 Sources of Uncertainty
    6. 2.5 Measurements and Models
    7. 2.6 Contaminants of Concern
    8. 2.7 Environmental Indicators
    9. 2.8 Emerging Trends in Measurement
    10. 2.9 Measurement Ethics
    11. References
  5. 3 Environmental Law for Engineers
    1. 3.1 Introduction and General Principles
    2. 3.2 Common Law
    3. 3.3 The National Environmental Policy Act
    4. 3.4 Clean Air Act
    5. 3.5 Clean Water Act
    6. 3.6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
    7. 3.7 CERCLA
    8. 3.8 Enforcement and Liability
  6. 4 Climate Modeling
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Historical Development
    3. 4.3 Numerical Architecture of the Dynamical Core
    4. 4.4 Physical and Subgrid‐Scale Parameterization
    5. 4.5 Coupling among the Major Components of the Climate System
    6. 4.6 The Practice of Climate Prediction and Projection
    7. 4.7 Statistical Model
    8. 4.8 Outlook
    9. References
  7. 5 Climate Change Impact Analysis for the Environmental Engineer
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Earth System’s Critical Zone
    3. 5.3 Perception, Risk, and Hazard
    4. 5.4 Climatology Methods
    5. 5.5 Geomorphometry: The Best Approach for Impact Analysis
    6. References
  8. 6 Adaptation Design to Sea Level Rise
    1. 6.1 Introduction: Sea Level Rise
    2. 6.2 Existing Structures and Adaptation Design to Sea Level Rise
    3. 6.3 Case Studies Reflecting Adaptation Design Solutions
    4. References
  9. 7 Soil Physical Properties and Processes
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Basic Properties of Soils
    3. 7.3 Water Flow in Soils
    4. 7.4 Solute Transport
    5. 7.5 Soil Temperature, Thermal Properties, and Heat Flow
    6. 7.6 Summary
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Physical Constants and Variables
    9. References
  10. 8 In Situ Soil and Sediment Remediation
    1. 8.1 Introduction and Background
    2. 8.2 Overview and Theory of Direct Electric Current in Soil and Sediment Remediation
    3. 8.3 Electrokinetically and Electrochemically Aided Soil and Sediment Remediation
    4. 8.4 Summary and Conclusions
    5. References
  11. 9 Remote Sensing of Environmental Variables and Fluxes
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Radiative Transfer Theory
    3. 9.3 RS Technology
    4. 9.4 RS of Static Soil Properties
    5. 9.5 RS of State Variables
    6. 9.6 RS of Environmental Fluxes
    7. 9.7 Summary
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. Abbreviations
    10. Physical Constants and Variables
    11. References
  12. 10 Environmental Fluid Mechanics
    1. 10.1 Open‐Channel Flow
    2. 10.2 Surface Waves
    3. 10.3 Groundwater Flow
    4. 10.4 Advection and Diffusion
    5. 10.5 Turbulent Jets
    6. 10.6 Turbulent Buoyant Plumes
    7. 10.7 Gravity Currents
    8. References
  13. 11 Water Quality
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Historical Background
    3. 11.3 Overview of Modern Water Quality
    4. 11.4 Natural or “Conventional” Water Quality Problems
    5. 11.5 Toxic Substances
    6. 11.6 Emerging Water Pollutants
    7. 11.7 Back to the Future
    8. References
  14. 12 Wastewater Engineering
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Wastewater Characteristics and Treatment Requirements
    3. 12.3 Treatment Technologies
    4. 12.4 Summary
    5. References
  15. 13 Wastewater Recycling
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Uses of Reclaimed Wastewater
    3. 13.3 Reliability Requirements for Wastewater Reclamation and Recycling Systems
    4. 13.4 Planning and Funding for Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse
    5. 13.5 Legal and Regulatory Issues
    6. 13.6 Public Involvement and Participation
    7. 13.7 Additional Considerations for Wastewater Recycling and Reclamation: Integrated Resource Recovery
    8. 13.8 Additional Sources of Information
    9. References
  16. 14 Design of Porous Pavements for Improved Water Quality and Reduced Runoff
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Benefits
    3. 14.3 Hydraulic Characterization
    4. 14.4 Hydraulic and Hydrologic Behavior
    5. 14.5 Design, Construction, and Maintenance
    6. References
  17. 15 Air Pollution Control Engineering
    1. 15.1 Overview of Air Quality
    2. 15.2 Emissions of Particulates
    3. 15.3 Control of Particulates
    4. 15.4 Control of Gaseous Compounds
    5. Acknowledgment
    6. References
    7. Further Reading
  18. 16 Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Measurement
    1. 16.1 Overview of Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere
    2. 16.2 History and Regulation
    3. 16.3 Particle Concentration Measurements
    4. 16.4 Measuring Particle Sizing Characteristics
    5. 16.5 Ambient Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Measurements
    6. 16.6 Aerosol Measurements: Sampling Concerns
    7. 16.7 Aerosol Formation and Aging Processes
    8. 16.8 Aerosol Optical Properties: Impacts on Visibility and Climate
    9. 16.9 Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties
    10. 16.10 Aerosol Chemical Composition
    11. 16.11 Aerosol Hygroscopicity
    12. 16.12 Aerosols, Meteorology, and Climate
    13. 16.13 Aerosol Emission Control Technology
    14. 16.14 Summary and Conclusion
    15. References
  19. 17 Indoor Air Pollution
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Completely Mixed Flow Reactor Model
    3. 17.3 Deposition Velocity
    4. 17.4 Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation
    5. 17.5 Filtration of Particles and Gases
    6. 17.6 Ventilation and Infiltration
    7. 17.7 Ventilation Measurements
    8. 17.8 Thermal Comfort and Psychrometrics
    9. 17.9 Energy Efficiency Retrofits
    10. 17.10 Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution
    11. 17.11 Radon Overview
    12. 17.12 Sources of Indoor Radon
    13. 17.13 Controlling Indoor Radon
    14. 17.14 Particles in Indoor Air
    15. 17.15 Bioaerosols
    16. 17.16 Volatile Organic Compounds
    17. 17.17 VOC Surface Interactions
    18. 17.18 Emissions Characterization
    19. 17.19 Odors
    20. Acknowledgments
    21. References
  20. 18 Environmental Noise Pollution
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Environmental Noise
    3. 18.3 Effects on Human Health and Environment
    4. 18.4 Sound Propagation in Environment
    5. 18.5 Characteristics of Sound
    6. 18.6 Relationship Between Characteristics
    7. 18.7 Environmental Noise Levels
    8. 18.8 Measurement and Analysis of Ambient Noise
    9. 18.9 Environmental Noise Management
    10. References
  21. 19 Hazardous Waste Management
    1. 19.1 Fundamentals
    2. 19.2 Legal Framework
    3. 19.3 Fate and Transport
    4. 19.4 Toxicology
    5. 19.5 Environmental Audits
    6. 19.6 General Overall Site Remediation Procedure
    7. References
  22. 20 Waste Minimization and Reuse Technologies
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Type of Recycled Waste Materials
    3. 20.3 Recycling Applications of Fly Ash and Recycled Concrete Aggregates
    4. 20.4 Benefit of Recycling Materials Usage
    5. 20.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  23. 21 Solid Waste Separation and Processing
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Size (or Volume) Reduction of Solid Waste
    3. 21.3 Size Separation
    4. 21.4 Manual‐/Sensor‐Based Sorting
    5. 21.5 Density (or Gravity) Separation
    6. 21.6 Magnetic/Electrostatic Separation
    7. 21.7 Ballistic Separation
    8. 21.8 Froth Flotation
    9. 21.9 Products Agglomeration (Cubing and Pelletizing)
    10. 21.10 Compaction (Baling)
    11. 21.11 Benefits and Prospects of Recycling
    12. References
  24. 22 Waste Reduction in Metals Manufacturing
    1. 22.1 Wastes at the Mine Sites
    2. 22.2 Chemical Metallurgy Wastes
    3. 22.3 Conclusions
    4. Reference
    5. Further Reading
  25. 23 Waste Reduction and Pollution Prevention for the Chemicals Industry
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Development of Pollution Prevention Programs
    3. 23.3 Economics of Pollution Prevention
    4. 23.4 Survey of Tools, Technologies, and Best Practices for Pollution Prevention
    5. 23.5 Concluding Remarks
    6. References
  26. 24 Industrial Waste Auditing
    1. 24.1 Overview
    2. 24.2 Waste Minimization Programs
    3. 24.3 Waste Minimization Cycle
    4. 24.4 Waste Auditing
    5. 24.5 Phase I: Preparatory Works for Waste Audit
    6. 24.6 Phase II: Preassessment of Target Processes
    7. 24.7 Phase III: Assessment
    8. 24.8 Phase IV: Synthesis and Preliminary Analysis
    9. 24.9 Conclusion
    10. Suggested Reading
  27. Index
  28. End User License Agreement