Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles, 3rd Edition

Book description

Written by an engineer for engineers, this book is both training manual and on-going reference, bringing together all the different facets of the complex processes that must be in place to minimize the risk to people, plant and the environment from fires, explosions, vapour releases and oil spills. Fully compliant with international regulatory requirements, relatively compact but comprehensive in its coverage, engineers, safety professionals and concerned company management will buy this book to capitalize on the author’s life-long expertise. This is the only book focusing specifically on oil and gas and related chemical facilities.

This new edition includes updates on management practices, lessons learned from recent incidents, and new material on chemical processes, hazards and risk reviews (e.g. CHAZOP). Latest technology on fireproofing, fire and gas detection systems and applications is also covered.

An introductory chapter on the philosophy of protection principles along with fundamental background material on the properties of the chemicals concerned and their behaviours under industrial conditions, combined with a detailed section on modern risk analysis techniques makes this book essential reading for students and professionals following Industrial Safety, Chemical Process Safety and Fire Protection Engineering courses.

  • A practical, results-oriented manual for practicing engineers, bringing protection principles and chemistry together with modern risk analysis techniques
  • Specific focus on oil and gas and related chemical facilities, making it comprehensive and compact
  • Includes the latest best practice guidance, as well as lessons learned from recent incidents

Table of contents

  1. Half Title
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents (1/2)
  6. Contents (2/2)
  7. About the Author
  8. Preface
  9. 1 Historical Background, Legal Influences, Management Responsibility, and Safety Culture
    1. 1.1. Historical Background (1/2)
    2. 1.1. Historical Background (2/2)
    3. 1.2. Legal Influences
      1. 1.2.1 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
      2. 1.2.2 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB)
      3. 1.2.3 DOT/PIPA Guidelines
      4. 1.2.4 BSEE, Safety and Environmental Management Systems
      5. 1.2.5 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
      6. 1.2.6 Security Vulnerability Assessment (SVA) Regulation
      7. 1.2.7 US Presidential Executive Orders (13605 and 13650)
    4. 1.3. Hazards and Their Prevention
    5. 1.4. Systems Approach
    6. 1.5. Fire Protection Engineering Role/Design Team
      1. 1.5.1 Risk Management and Insurance
    7. 1.6. Senior Management's Responsibility and Accountability
      1. 1.6.1 Achieving a World Class Organizational Safety Culture
    8. 1.7. Operational Excellence
      1. 1.7.1 Typical OE Elements
    9. Further Reading
  10. 2 Overview of Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical Facilities
    1. 2.1. Exploration
    2. 2.2. Production
    3. 2.3. Enhanced Oil Recovery
    4. 2.4. Secondary Recovery
    5. 2.5. Tertiary Recovery
    6. 2.6. Transportation
    7. 2.7. Refining
      1. 2.7.1 Basic Distillation
      2. 2.7.2 Thermal Cracking
      3. 2.7.3 Alkylation and Catalytic Cracking
      4. 2.7.4 Purification
    8. 2.8. Typical Refinery Process Flow
      1. 2.8.1 Production Percentages
    9. 2.9. Marketing
    10. 2.10. Chemical Processes
    11. Further Reading
  11. 3 Philosophy of Protection Principles
    1. 3.1. Legal Obligations
      1. 3.1.1 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
      2. 3.1.2 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    2. 3.2. Insurance Recommendations
    3. 3.3. Company and Industry Standards
      1. 3.3.1 General Philosophy
    4. 3.4. Worst Case Condition
      1. 3.4.1 Ambient Conditions
    5. 3.5. Independent Layers of Protection (ILP)
    6. 3.6. Design Principles
    7. 3.7. Accountability and Auditability
    8. Further Reading
  12. 4 Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons and Petrochemicals
    1. 4.1. General Description of Hydrocarbons
      1. 4.1.1 Alkene Series
      2. 4.1.2 Alkyne Series
      3. 4.1.3 Cyclic Hydrocarbons
    2. 4.2. Characteristics of Hydrocarbons
      1. 4.2.1 Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) and Upper Explosive Limit (UEL)
    3. 4.3. Flash Point (FP)
    4. 4.4. Autoignition Temperature (AIT)
    5. 4.5. Vapor Density Ratio
    6. 4.6. Vapor Pressure
    7. 4.7. Specific Gravity
    8. 4.8. Flammable
    9. 4.9. Combustible
    10. 4.10. Heat of Combustion
      1. 4.10.1 Description of Some Common Hydrocarbons (1/2)
      2. 4.10.1 Description of Some Common Hydrocarbons (2/2)
        1. 4.10.1.1 Natural Gas
        2. 4.10.1.2 Crude Oil
        3. 4.10.1.3 Methane
        4. 4.10.1.4 LNG, Liquefied Natural Gas
        5. 4.10.1.5 Ethane
        6. 4.10.1.6 Propane
        7. 4.10.1.7 Butane
        8. 4.10.1.8 LPG, Liquefied Petroleum Gas
        9. 4.10.1.9 Gasoline
        10. 4.10.1.10 Condensate
        11. 4.10.1.11 Gas and Fuel Oils
        12. 4.10.1.12 Kerosene
        13. 4.10.1.13 Diesel
        14. 4.10.1.14 Fuel Oils #4, 5, and 6
        15. 4.10.1.15 Lubricating Oils and Greases
        16. 4.10.1.16 Asphalt
        17. 4.10.1.17 Wax
      3. 4.10.2 Description of Common Petrochemicals Used in the Petrochemical Industry
        1. 4.10.2.1 Aromatics
        2. 4.10.2.2 Olefins/Alkenes
        3. 4.10.2.3 Chemical Compound Concerns
    11. Further Reading
  13. 5 Characteristics of Hazardous Material Releases, Fires, and Explosions
    1. 5.1. Hazardous Material Releases
    2. 5.2. Gaseous Releases
      1. 5.2.1 Mists or Spray Releases
      2. 5.2.2 Liquid Releases
    3. 5.3. Nature and Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Combustion
      1. 5.3.1 Hydrocarbon Fires (1/4)
      2. 5.3.1 Hydrocarbon Fires (2/4)
      3. 5.3.1 Hydrocarbon Fires (3/4)
      4. 5.3.1 Hydrocarbon Fires (4/4)
        1. 5.3.1.1 Jet Fire
        2. 5.3.1.2 Pool Fire
        3. 5.3.1.3 Flash Fire
        4. 5.3.1.4 Nature of Hydrocarbon Explosions
        5. 5.3.1.5 Process System Explosions (Detonations)
        6. 5.3.1.6 Vapor Cloud Explosions
        7. 5.3.1.7 Deliberate Terrorist Explosions
        8. 5.3.1.8 Semi-Confined Explosion Overpressures
        9. 5.3.1.9 Vapor Cloud Overpressures
        10. 5.3.1.10 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions (BLEVES)
        11. 5.3.1.11 Smoke and Combustion Gases
        12. 5.3.1.12 Petrochemical and Chemical Process Hazards
        13. 5.3.1.13 Mathematical Consequence Modeling
    4. 5.4. Methods of Flame Extinguishment
      1. 5.4.1 Cooling (Water Spray, Water Injection, Water Flooding, Etc.)
      2. 5.4.2 Oxygen Deprivation (Steam Smothering, Inerting, Foam Sealing, CO2 Application, etc.)
      3. 5.4.3 Fuel Removal (Foam Sealing, Isolation, Pump-out, etc.)
      4. 5.4.4 Chemical Reaction Inhibition (Clean Agent Total Flooding, Dry Chemical Application, etc.)
      5. 5.4.5 Flame Blow-Out (Explosives, Jet Engines)
    5. 5.5. Incident Scenario Development
    6. 5.6. Terminology of Hydrocarbon Explosions and Fires
    7. Further Reading
  14. 6 Historical Survey of Major Fires and Explosions in the Process Industries
    1. 6.1. Lack of Process Industry Incident Database and Analysis
    2. 6.2. Insurance Industry Perspective
    3. 6.3. Process Industry Perspective
    4. 6.4. Major Incidents Affecting Process Industry Safety Management
    5. 6.5. Relevancy of Incident Data
    6. 6.6. Incident Data
      1. 2013
      2. 6.6.2 2012
      3. 6.6.3 2011
      4. 6.6.4 2010
      5. 6.6.5 2009
      6. 6.6.6 2008
      7. 6.6.7 2007
      8. 6.6.8 2006
      9. 6.6.9 2005
      10. 6.6.10 2004
      11. 6.6.11 2003
      12. 6.6.12 2002
      13. 6.6.13 2001
      14. 6.6.14 2000
      15. 6.6.15 1999
      16. 6.6.16 1998
      17. 6.6.17 1997
      18. 6.6.18 1996
      19. 6.6.19 1995
        1. 6.6.19.1 Summary of Recent US Outer Continental Shelf Incidents
    7. 6.7. Summary
    8. Further Reading
  15. 7 Risk Analysis
    1. 7.1. Risk Identification and Evaluation
    2. 7.2. Qualitative Reviews
    3. 7.3. Quantitative Reviews
    4. 7.4. Specialized Supplemental Studies
      1. 7.4.1 Offshore Specialized Studies
    5. 7.5. Risk Acceptance Criteria
    6. 7.6. Relevant and Accurate Data Resources
    7. 7.7. Insurance Risk Evaluations
    8. Further Reading
  16. 8 Segregation, Separation, and Arrangement
    1. 8.1. Segregation
    2. 8.2. Separation
    3. 8.3. Manned Facilities and Locations
    4. 8.4. Process Units
    5. 8.5. Storage Facilities—Tanks
    6. 8.6. Flares and Burn Pits
    7. 8.7. Critical Utilities and Support Systems
    8. 8.8. Arrangement
    9. 8.9. Plant Roads—Truck Routes, Crane Access, and Emergency Response
    10. Further Reading
  17. 9 Grading, Containment, and Drainage Systems
    1. 9.1. Drainage Systems
    2. 9.2. Process and Area Drainage
    3. 9.3. Surface Drainage
    4. 9.4. Open Channels and Trenches
    5. 9.5. Spill Containment
    6. Further Reading
  18. 10 Process Controls
    1. 10.1. Human Observation
    2. 10.2. Electronic Process Control
    3. 10.3. Instrumentation, Automation, and Alarm Management
    4. 10.4. System Reliability
    5. 10.5. High Integrity Protective Systems (HIPS)
    6. 10.6. Transfer and Storage Controls
    7. 10.7. Burner Management Systems (BMS)
    8. Further Reading
  19. 11 Emergency Shutdown
    1. 11.1. Definition and Objective
    2. 11.2. Design Philosophy
    3. 11.3. Activation Mechanisms
    4. 11.4. Levels of Shutdown
    5. 11.5. Reliability and Fail Safe Logic
    6. 11.6. ESD/DCS Interfaces
    7. 11.7. Activation Points
    8. 11.8. Activation Hardware Features
    9. 11.9. Emergency Shutdown Valves (ESDVs)
    10. 11.10. Emergency Isolation Valves (EIVs)
    11. 11.11. Subsea Isolation Valves (SSIVs)
    12. 11.12. Protection Requirements
    13. 11.13. System Interactions
    14. Further Reading
  20. 12 Depressurization, Blowdown, and Venting
    1. 12.1. Objective of Emergency Process Inventory Isolation and Removal Systems
    2. 12.2. Separator (Horizontal)
    3. 12.3. Crude Stabilizer Column
    4. 12.4. Blowdown
    5. 12.5. Venting
    6. 12.6. Flares and Burn Pits
    7. Further Reading
  21. 13 Overpressure and Thermal Relief
    1. 13.1. Causes OF Overpressure
    2. 13.2. Pressure Relief Valves
    3. 13.3. Thermal Relief
    4. 13.4. Solar Heat
      1. 13.4.1 Thermal Relief Fluid Disposal
    5. 13.5. Pressure Relief Device Locations
    6. Further Reading
  22. 14 Control of Ignition Sources
    1. 14.1. Open Flames, Hot Work, Cutting, and Welding
    2. 14.2. Electrical Arrangements
    3. 14.3. Electrical Area Classification
    4. 14.4. Electrical Area Classification
    5. 14.5. Surface Temperature Limits
    6. 14.6. Classified Locations and Release Sources
    7. 14.7. Protection Measures
      1. 14.7.1 Explosion-proof Rated Equipment
      2. 14.7.2 Intrinsically Safe Rated Equipment
      3. 14.7.3 Hermetically Sealed Electrical Equipment
      4. 14.7.4 Purging
      5. 14.7.5 Relocation of Devices
      6. 14.7.6 Smoking
    8. 14.8. Static Electricity
      1. 14.8.1 Static Electric Generation
      2. 14.8.2 Static Electric Accumulation
      3. 14.8.3 Spark Gap
      4. 14.8.4 Reducing Static Generation
      5. 14.8.5 Increasing Static Dissipation—Bonding and Grounding
      6. 14.8.6 Controlling the Environment—Inerting and Ventilation
    9. 14.9. Special Static Ignition Concerns
      1. 14.9.1 Switch Loading
      2. 14.9.2 Sampling, Gauging, and High-Level Devices
      3. 14.9.3 Purging and Cleaning Tanks and Vessels
    10. 14.10. Lightning
    11. 14.11. Stray Currents
      1. 14.11.1 Protection against Stray Currents
    12. 14.12. Internal Combustion Engines
    13. 14.13. Hot Surface Ignition
    14. 14.14. Pyrophoric Materials
    15. 14.15. Spark Arrestors
    16. 14.16. Hand Tools
    17. 14.17. Mobile Telephones, Laptops, and Portable Electronic Field Devices
    18. Further Reading
  23. 15 Elimination of Process Releases
    1. 15.1. Inventory Reduction
    2. 15.2. Vents and Relief Valves
    3. 15.3. Sample Points
    4. 15.4. Drainage Systems
    5. 15.5. Storage Facilities
    6. 15.6. Pump Seals
    7. 15.7. Vibration Stress Failure of Piping
    8. 15.8. Rotating Equipment
    9. Further Reading
  24. 16 Fire and Explosion Resistant Systems
    1. 16.1. Explosions
    2. 16.2. Definition of Explosion Potentials
    3. 16.3. Explosion Protection Design Arrangements
    4. 16.4. Vapor Dispersion Enhancements
      1. 16.4.1 Location Optimized Based on Prevailing Winds
      2. 16.4.2 Water Sprays
      3. 16.4.3 Air Cooler Fans
      4. 16.4.4 Supplemental Ventilation Systems
      5. 16.4.5. Damage Limiting Construction
    5. 16.5. Fireproofing
      1. 16.5.1 Fireproofing Specifications
        1. 16.5.1.1 Fireproofing Materials
      2. 16.5.2 Cementitious Materials
      3. 16.5.3 Pre-formed Masonry and Inorganic Panels
      4. 16.5.4 Metallic Enclosures
      5. 16.5.5 Thermal Insulation
      6. 16.5.6 Intumescent Coatings
      7. 16.5.7 Refractory Fibers
      8. 16.5.8 Composite Materials
      9. 16.5.9 Radiation Shields
      10. 16.5.10 Water Cooling Sprays
      11. 16.5.11 Vapor Dispersion Water Sprays
    6. 16.6. Locations Requiring Consideration of Fire Resistant Measures
      1. 16.6.1 Enhanced Safety Helideck
    7. 16.7. Flame Resistance
      1. 16.7.1 Interior Surfaces
      2. 16.7.2 Electrical Cables
      3. 16.7.3 Optical Fire Cables
        1. 16.7.3.1 Fire Dampers
        2. 16.7.3.2 Smoke Dampers
        3. 16.7.3.3 Flame and Spark Arrestors
        4. 16.7.3.4 Piping Detonation Arrestors
    8. Further Reading
  25. 17 Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems
    1. 17.1. Fire and Smoke Detection Methods
      1. 17.1.1 Human Surveillance
        1. 17.1.1.1 Manual Pull Station (MPS)/Manual Activation Callpoint (MAC)
        2. 17.1.1.2 Telephone Reporting
        3. 17.1.1.3 Portable Radios
      2. 17.1.2 Smoke Detectors
        1. 17.1.2.1 Ionization
        2. 17.1.2.2 Photoelectric
        3. 17.1.2.3 Dual Chamber
        4. 17.1.2.4 Laser
        5. 17.1.2.5 Very Early Smoke Detection and Alarm (VESDA)
      3. 17.1.3 Thermal or Heat Detectors (1/2)
      4. 17.1.3 Thermal or Heat Detectors (2/2)
        1. 17.1.3.1 Optical (Flame) Detectors
        2. 17.1.3.2 Ultraviolet (UV) Detectors
          1. Advantages
          2. Limitations
        3. 17.1.3.3 Single Frequency Infrared (IR) Detectors
          1. Advantages
          2. Limitations
        4. 17.1.3.4 Dual or Multiple Frequency Infrared (IR/IR) Detectors
          1. Advantages
          2. Limitations
        5. 17.1.3.5 Ultraviolet/Infrared (UV/IR) Detectors
          1. Advantages
          2. Limitations
        6. 17.1.3.6 Multi-Band Detectors
          1. Advantages
          2. Limitations
        7. 17.1.3.7 Projected IR Beam Detectors
          1. Advantages
          2. Limitations
    2. 17.2. Gas Detectors
      1. 17.2.1 Application
    3. 17.2.1.1. Typical Process Facility Applications
    4. 17.2.2. Catalytic Point Gas Detectors
    5. 17.2.3. Infra-Red (IR) Beam Gas Detectors
    6. 17.2.4. Ultrasonic Area Gas Detectors
    7. 17.2.5. Alarm Settings
    8. 17.3. Calibration
    9. 17.3.1 Hazardous Area Classification
    10. 17.3.2 Fire and Gas Detection Control Panels
    11. 17.3.3 Graphic Annunciation
    12. 17.3.4 Plant/Field Display of Alarms
    13. 17.3.5 Power Supplies
    14. 17.3.6 Emergency Backup Power
    15. 17.3.7 Time Delay
    16. 17.3.8 Voting Logic
    17. 17.3.9 Cross Zoning
    18. 17.3.10 Executive Action
    19. 17.3.11 Circuit Supervision
    20. 17.3.12 Vibration Avoidance
    21. Further Reading
  26. 18 Evacuation Alerting and Arrangements
    1. 18.1. Emergency Response Plan
    2. 18.2. Alarms and Notification
      1. 18.2.1 Alarm Initiation
    3. 18.3. Evacuation Routes
    4. 18.4. Emergency Doors, Stairs, Exits, and Escape Hatches
      1. 18.4.1 Marking and Identification
      2. 18.4.2 Emergency Illumination
    5. 18.5. Shelter-in-Place (SIP)
    6. 18.6. Offshore Evacuation
      1. 18.6.1 North/South Atlantic and North/South Pacific Environments
      2. 18.6.2 Temperate and Tropical Environments
      3. 18.6.3 Means of Egress
      4. 18.6.4 Floatation Assistance
    7. Further Reading
  27. 19 Methods of Fire Suppression
    1. 19.1. Portable Fire Extinguishers
    2. 19.2. Water Suppression Systems
    3. 19.3. Water Supplies
    4. 19.4. Fire Pumps (1/2)
    5. 19.4. Fire Pumps (2/2)
      1. 19.4.1 Fire Pump Standards and Tests
    6. 19.5. Firewater Distribution Systems
    7. 19.6. Firewater Control and Isolation Valves
    8. 19.7. Sprinkler Systems
    9. 19.8. Water Deluge Systems
    10. 19.9. Water Spray Systems
    11. 19.10. Water Flooding
    12. 19.11. Steam Smothering
    13. 19.12. Water Curtains
    14. 19.13. Blow-Out Water Injection Systems
    15. 19.14. Monitors, Hydrants, and Hose Reels
      1. 19.14.1 Nozzles
    16. 19.15. Foam Suppression Systems
      1. 19.15.1 Types
      2. 19.15.2 Concentrations
      3. 19.15.3 Systems
      4. 19.15.4 General Area Coverage
      5. 19.15.5 Foam Water Deluge Systems
      6. 19.15.6 Overhead Foam Injection
      7. 19.15.7 Subsurface Foam Injection
      8. 19.15.8 Deck Integrated Fire Fighting System (DIFFS)
      9. 19.15.9 High Expansion Foam
    17. 19.16. Manual Fire Fighting Utilization
    18. 19.17. Gaseous Systems
      1. 19.17.1 Carbon Dioxide Systems
        1. 19.17.1.1 Applications
        2. 19.17.1.2 Safety Precautions
        3. 19.17.1.3 System Discharges
        4. 19.17.1.4 System Leakages
        5. 19.17.1.5 Disadvantages
        6. 19.17.1.6 Halons
    19. 19.18. Clean Agent Systems
      1. 19.18.1 Oxygen Deficient Gas Inerting Systems
    20. 19.19. Chemical Systems
      1. 19.19.1 Wet Chemical
      2. 19.19.2 Dry Chemical
    21. 19.20. Dual Agent Systems
      1. 19.20.1 Chemical and Foam
    22. Further reading
  28. 20 Special Locations, Facilities, and Equipment
    1. 20.1. Arctic Environments
    2. 20.2. Desert Arid Environments
    3. 20.3. Tropical Environments
    4. 20.4. Earthquake Zones
    5. 20.5. Wellheads—Exploration (Onshore and Offshore)
    6. 20.6. Pipelines
      1. 20.6.1 Main Pipeline Safety Features
      2. 20.6.2 Causes of Pipeline Failures
      3. 20.6.3 Pipeline Incident History
    7. 20.7. Storage Tanks
      1. 20.7.1 Incidents
    8. 20.8. Loading Facilities
    9. 20.9. Offshore Facilities
      1. 20.9.1 Helicopter Landing Decks Offshore
      2. 20.9.2 Offshore Floating Exploration and Production Facilities
    10. 20.10. Electrical Equipment and Communications Rooms
    11. 20.11. Oil-Filled Transformers
    12. 20.12. Battery Rooms
    13. 20.13. Enclosed Turbines or Gas Compressor Packages
    14. 20.14. Emergency Generators
    15. 20.15. Heat Transfer Systems
    16. 20.16. Cooling Towers
    17. 20.17. Testing Laboratories (Including Oil or Water Testing, Darkrooms, etc.)
    18. 20.18. Warehouses
    19. 20.19. Cafeterias and Kitchens
    20. Further Reading
  29. 21 Human Factors and Ergonomic Considerations
    1. 21.1. Human Attitude
    2. 21.2. Control Room Consoles
    3. 21.3. Field Devices
    4. 21.4. Instructions, Markings, and Identification
    5. 21.5. Colors and Identification
      1. 21.5.1 Colors
      2. 21.5.2 Numbering and Identification
      3. 21.5.3 Noise Control
      4. 21.5.4 Panic
      5. 21.5.5 Security
      6. 21.5.6 Accommodation of Religious Functions
    6. Further Reading
  30. Appendix A: Testing Firewater Systems
  31. Appendix A-1: Testing of Firewater Pumping Systems
    1. A-1.1. Basic Procedure
    2. A-1.2. Supplemental Checks
    3. A-1.3. Correction Factors for Observed Test RPM to Rated RPM of Driver
  32. Appendix A-2: Testing of Firewater Distribution Systems
    1. A-2.1. General Considerations
    2. A-2.2. Firewater Distribution System
    3. A-2.3. Preparing Test Results
      1. A-2.3.1 Hydrant Flow Data
  33. Appendix Testing of Sprinkler and Deluge Systems
    1. A-3.1. Wet and Dry Pipe Sprinklers
    2. A-3.2. Deluge Systems
  34. Appendix A-4: Testing of Foam Fire Suppression Systems
  35. Appendix A-5: Testing of Firewater Hose Reels and Monitors
    1. A-5.1. General Requirements
    2. A-5.2. Hose Reels
    3. A-5.3. Monitors
  36. Appendix A-6: Fire Protection Hydrostatic Testing Requirements
  37. Appendix B: Reference Data
  38. Appendix B-1: Fire Resistance Testing Standards
  39. Appendix B-2: Explosion and Fire Resistance Ratings
    1. B-2.1. Fire Resistance Ratings
    2. B-2.1.1 A Barriers
    3. B-2.1.2 B Barriers
    4. B-2.1.3 C Barriers
    5. B-2.1.4 H Barriers
    6. B-2.1.5 IMO Levels (for Piping Systems, Shipping)
    7. B-2.1.6 J Ratings
    8. B-2.1.7 Heat Flux
    9. B-2.1.8 Fire Doors
    10. B-2.1.9 Fire Windows
    11. B-2.1.10 Explosion Resistance
  40. Appendix B-3: National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Classifications
    1. B-3.1. Type 1—General Purpose
    2. B-3.2. Type 1A—Semi-Dust Tight
    3. B-3.3. Type 1B—Flush Type
    4. B-3.4. Type 2—Drip Proof Indoors
    5. B-3.5. Type 3—Dust Tight, Rain Tight, and Sleet (Ice) Resistant Outdoor
    6. B-3.6. Type 3R—Rain Proof, Sleet (Ice) Resistant, Outdoor
    7. B-3.7. Type 3S—Dust Tight, Rain Tight, and Sleet (Ice) Proof—Outdoor
    8. B-3.8. Type 3X—Dust Tight, Rain Tight, and Sleet (Ice) Proof—Outdoor, Corrosion Resistant
    9. B-3.9. Type 3RX—Rain Tight, and Sleet (Ice) Proof—Outdoor, Corrosion Resistant
    10. B-3.10. Type 3SX—Dust Tight, Rain Tight, Ice Resistant, Corrosion Resistant
    11. B-3.11. Type 4—Water Tight and Dust Tight
    12. B-3.12. Type 4X—Water Tight, Dust Tight, and Corrosion Resistant
    13. B-3.13. Type 5—Dust Tight Water Tight
    14. B-3.14. Type 6—Submersible
    15. B-3.15. Type 6P—Prolonged Submersible
    16. B-3.16. Type 7—(A, B, C, or D) Hazardous Locations—Class I Air Break
    17. B-3.17. Type 8—(A, B, C, or D) Hazardous Locations—Class I Oil Immersed
    18. B-3.18. Type 9—(E, F, or G) Hazardous Locations—Class II
    19. B-3.19. Type 10—Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) Explosionproof
    20. B-3.20. Type 11—Corrosion-Resistant and Dripproof Oil-immersed-Indoor
    21. B-3.21. Type 12—Industrial Use
    22. B-3.22. Type 12K—Industrial Use, with Knockouts
    23. B-3.23. Type 13—Oil Tight and Dust Tight Indoor
  41. Appendix B-4: Hydraulic Data
    1. B-4.1. Coefficient of Discharge Factors
  42. Appendix B-5: Selected Conversion Factors
    1. B-5.1. Metric Prefixes, Symbols, and Multiplying Factors
    2. B-5.2. Temperature Conversions
    3. B-5.3. Selected Conversion Factors
    4. B-5.4. Miscellaneous Constants
  43. Acronym List
  44. Glossary (1/2)
  45. Glossary (2/2)
  46. Index
    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. E
    6. F
    7. G
    8. H
    9. I
    10. J
    11. K
    12. L
    13. M
    14. N
    15. O
    16. P
    17. Q
    18. R
    19. S
    20. T
    21. U
    22. V
    23. W

Product information

  • Title: Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles, 3rd Edition
  • Author(s): Dennis P. Nolan
  • Release date: May 2014
  • Publisher(s): William Andrew
  • ISBN: 9780323311441