The Advanced Encryption Standard
Duncan A. Buell, University of South Carolina
HISTORY OF THE ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD PROCESS
In July 1977, the United States National Bureau of Standards (NBS, whose name was later changed to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST), promulgated Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 46, the Data Encryption Standard, or DES, for ensuring secure communication, primarily with regard to financial transactions conducted electronically (NIST, 1999). DES had a rather controversial start; from the very beginning there were critics who pointed out that the technical capability for breaking DES was not entirely beyond 1980s technology. Diffie and Hellman argued in 1977 that by about 1987 a machine capable of an essentially brute-force attack on DES would cost only about $200,000 (Diffie, 1977). Indeed, DES was broken, using an approach similar to and at a cost similar to the projections of Diffie and Hellman, but not until 1998. A careful analysis ...