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Handbook of Mobile Learning

Book Description

Winner of the AECT Division of Distance Learning (DDL) Distance Education Book Award!

This handbook provides a comprehensive compendium of research in all aspects of mobile learning, one of the most significant ongoing global developments in the entire field of education. Rather than focus on specific technologies, expert authors discuss how best to utilize technology in the service of improving teaching and learning.

For more than a decade, researchers and practitioners have been exploring this area of study as the growing popularity of smartphones, tablets, and other such devices, as well as the increasingly sophisticated applications for these devices, has allowed educators to accommodate and support an increasingly mobile society. This handbook provides the first authoritative account of the theory and research that underlies mobile learning, while also exemplifying models of current and future practice.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. About the Authors
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Foundations and Future
    1. 1. A Historical Overview of M-Learning: Toward Learner-Centered Education
      1. Defining Mobile Learning
      2. Pedagogical Shifts in Learning
        1. Discovery Learning in the 1970s
        2. Constructivist Learning in the 1980s
        3. Constructionist Learning in the 1980s
        4. Problem-Based Learning in the 1990s
        5. Socio-Constructivist Learning in the 1990s
        6. Learner-Centered Developments
      3. Advances in Technology
        1. 1970s
        2. 1980s
        3. 1990s
      4. Connecting the Technologies and the Learning
        1. E-Learning
        2. M-Learning
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    2. 2. M-Learning as a Subfield of Open and Distance Education
      1. United Aims in a Fractured Field
      2. Social and Technological Foundations of Distance Education
        1. Early Social Movements and the Opening of Educational Access
        2. Early Technologies and the Opening of Educational Access
          1. The Penny Black Stamp and Postal Service
          2. Lyceums and the Extension Movement
          3. The Emergence of Radio
          4. Educational Television
      3. Conclusion
      4. References
    3. 3. A Summary and Critique of M-Learning Research and Practice
      1. Overview of M-Learning Research
        1. Phases of M-Learning Research
        2. M-Learning Research Approaches
        3. Large-Scale M-Learning Projects
        4. M-Learning Research Funding
        5. M-Learning Project Contexts
        6. M-Learning Research Methodologies
        7. Identifying the Gaps in M-Learning Research
      2. Focusing on the Future of M-Learning Research
      3. Conclusion
      4. References
    4. 4. A Sociocultural Ecological Frame for Mobile Learning
      1. Towards a Cultural Ecology of M-Learning
      2. New Digital Resources Within the Mobile Complex of Structures, Agency and Cultural Practices
        1. Sociocultural Structures
        2. Agency
        3. Cultural Practices
      3. The Appropriation of New Cultural Products and a New Habitus of Learning
        1. Appropriation
        2. Habitus of Learning
      4. References
    5. 5. Mobile Learning: New Approach, New Theory
      1. Definition and Devices
      2. A Need for a New Theory
      3. Criteria for M-Learning
      4. Proposed Theories
        1. Activity Theory
        2. Conversation Theory
        3. Connecting to Multiple Theories
      5. Emerging Themes
        1. Context
        2. Connectivity
        3. Time
        4. Personalization
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    6. 6. Framework for Mobile-Learning Integration Into Educational Contexts
      1. Introduction
      2. M-Learning-Technologies Integration in the Learning Process: A Framework
        1. Technological and Pedagogical Domains
        2. Technological Domain
        3. Pedagogical Domain
      3. Mobile Generation Project
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
    7. 7. Learning and Teaching as Communicative Actions: A Theory for Mobile Education
      1. Theoretical Framework: Learning and Teaching as Communicative Actions
      2. Communicative Actions
        1. Criticism of Communication and Theory
        2. Communication to Reach Goals
      3. Learning and Teaching as Communicative Actions
      4. Communicative Actions to Support Learning and Teaching
      5. Using LTCA Theory to Design Instruction for Mobile Learning
      6. Mobile Tools for LTCA Learning
      7. Theory into Practice: Starting With Should
        1. Lifeworld Sharing
        2. Strategic Acts
        3. Argumentative Communications: Learning Through Discord
        4. Individual Expressions of Truth and Identity
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
    8. 8. A Future for M-Learning
      1. Describing Devices
      2. Defining M-Learning
        1. The Four Cs
        2. Augmenting
      3. State of Play
        1. Trends
        2. The New Normal
      4. Going Forward
        1. What’s Missing
        2. Making Thinking Visible
        3. Meta-Learning
        4. Learning Experience
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    9. 9. Seamless Learning: An International Perspective on Next-Generation Technology-Enhanced Learning
      1. The Evolution of Technology-Enhanced Learning
      2. Characterizing Seamless Learning
      3. Challenges in Pedagogical and Technological Design Associated with Seamless Learning
      4. Exemplars of Seamless-Learning Activities in Asia and Europe
        1. Inquiry-Based Seamless Learning Project in Taiwan
        2. The Personal-Inquiry Project in the United Kingdom
        3. The Geometry Mobile Project in Sweden
        4. Sustainable Seamless Learning in a Singapore Primary School
        5. Learning by Logging Project in Japan
      5. Discussion and Conclusions
      6. References
    10. 10. Substantive Educational Change is in the Palm of Our Children’s Hands
      1. Technology = Opportunity
      2. The Age of Mobilism = Opportunity for K–12 to Finally Change
      3. Scaffolding the “Demanded Thinking”
      4. Essential Use vs Supplemental Use: When Computing Devices Move the Needle of Achievement
      5. Barriers to Change
      6. Concluding Remarks
      7. Acknowledgment
      8. References
    11. 11. The Future of Mobile Apps for Teaching and Learning
      1. Mobile-App Technologies
        1. Mobile Apps for Teaching and Learning
        2. Cloud Computing for Mobile-App Integration
        3. The Future of Mobile Apps for Teaching and Learning
      2. Analysis of Student Perceptions of Mobile Apps for Teaching and Learning
        1. Methodology
        2. Results and Discussion
      3. Conclusion
      4. References
    12. 12. Mobile Learning Across Developing and Developed Worlds: Tackling Distance, Digital Divides, Disadvantage, Disenfranchisement
      1. History and the Context
      2. Mobiles for Education for Development
      3. Mobiles for Education for Disadvantage
      4. Observations and Issues
      5. The Coming Decade
      6. Personal Reflections
      7. References
  9. Part II: Learning and Learner Support
    1. 13. Mobile Learners: Who Are They and Who Will They Become?
      1. Problem Statement
      2. Characterizing Mobile Learners
      3. Target Learners in M-Learning
        1. Schoolchildren and Their Carers
          1. Higher-Education Students
          2. Young Adults Not in Education or Work
          3. The Underserved in Development Contexts
          4. World of Work: Employees, Professionals, Apprentices
          5. Communities, Friends and Families
          6. Learners With Special Needs and Disabilities
      4. Discussion
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    2. 14. Mindtools for Supporting Mobile-Learning Activities
      1. Literature Review
      2. Mindtools for M-Learning
        1. Concept Map-Oriented Mindtools for M-Learning
        2. Expert System-Oriented Mindtools for M-Learning
      3. Efficacy of Mindtools in Supporting M-Learning
      4. References
    3. 15. Rethinking Scaffolding in Mobile Connectivist Learning Environments
      1. Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Concept
      2. Berge’s Learner Support Strategies
      3. Siemens’ Connectivism Approach
      4. Mobile Connectivist Learning Environments
      5. Scaffolding in a Mobile Connectivist Learning Environment
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    4. 16. A Mobile Pedagogy Approach for Transforming Learners and Faculty
      1. Theoretical Background of M-Learning
      2. Themes of user Practice
        1. Ad Hoc Infrastructure for Learning
        2. Increased Learner Independence
        3. Increased Learner Engagement
        4. Increased Communication
      3. Examples of Practice: Toward an M-Learning Pedagogy
      4. Reimagining a Pedagogy in a Mobile Context
        1. Rethinking Formal Learning in a Mobile Context
        2. Rethinking Informal Learning in a Mobile Context
      5. Summary
      6. Appendix 16.a
      7. Appendix 16.B
      8. Appendix 16.C
      9. References
    5. 17. The Power of the Personal: Discovering the M in M-Learning
      1. Exploring the Affordance of Mobile Devices
        1. Leveraging the Touch Screen
        2. Leveraging the Internet
        3. Leveraging the Mobile App
      2. Reimagining a Learning Framework
      3. M-Learning and Higher Education
        1. Theory Meets Practice
        2. Nudging Each Student to Success
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
    6. 18. Social Versus Individual Flow in Mobile Learning
      1. Unique Benefits of M-Learning
      2. Measuring Learning Experiences
      3. Individual Versus Social Flow Experience
      4. Raising Challenge through Collaboration: Social Flow
      5. A Case Study: Learning Experience and Social Flow
      6. Conclusions and Discussion
      7. Acknowledgment
      8. References
    7. 19. The “Reflective Student”: The Use of Mobile Devices Through Seamless Educational Spaces and Authentic Learning Scenarios
      1. Pedagogical Foundations
        1. Bridging Technology and Learning
        2. Seamless Spaces and Authentic Frameworks
      2. Research
        1. Context and Population Targeted
        2. Desired Outcomes
      3. Project Development
        1. Wireless University
        2. Mobile School
        3. Evaluation Methodology
      4. Project Outcomes
        1. Students’ Feedback on Wireless Training
        2. Mobile Affordances and Efficacy of Learning: The Tutors’ Perspective
        3. Teachers’ Feedback on M-Learning
        4. Measurement of Learning Outcomes
      5. Discussion
        1. Reflection In and On Action
        2. Deductive/Inductive Models of Reasoning
        3. Interactional Mobility and Communities of Practice
      6. Conclusions
        1. Effects on Learning
        2. Sustainability, Teacher Training, and Other Barriers
      7. References
    8. 20. Museums: Gateways to Mobile Learning
      1. Create Content
      2. Conversing about Content
        1. Conversing Inside the Museum
        2. Conversing Beyond the Museum
      3. Play with Content
        1. Playing at the Museum
        2. Playing Beyond the Museum
      4. Extend Content
        1. Layering the Environment
        2. Narrating the Environment
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    9. 21. E-Book Readers and PDAs for Work-Based Learners
      1. Mobile Devices and Work-Based Learning
      2. Case Study 1: E-Book Readers for Work-Based Distance Learners
        1. Context
        2. Implementation
        3. Results
          1. Learning Time
          2. Learning Cost
          3. Learning Strategy
          4. Copyright Issue
          5. Technological Limitations
      3. Case Study 2: PDAs for Work-Based Learners
        1. Context
        2. Implementation
        3. Results
          1. Learning Support
          2. Learning Design
          3. Learner Support
          4. Ethical Issues
          5. Technological Limitations
      4. Discussion
        1. Learners’ Mobility And Learning Time
        2. Learning Cost
        3. Learner Support
        4. Learning Design
        5. Technical Limitations
        6. Challenges
      5. Conclusions
      6. References
  10. Part III: Teaching and Instructional Design
    1. 22. M-Learning as a Catalyst for Pedagogical Change
      1. The Impact of M-Learning
      2. Transforming Pedagogy Via M-Learning
      3. A New Research Methodology
        1. Pedagogical Frameworks
        2. Measuring Pedagogical Change
        3. New Support Strategies
        4. New Research Dissemination Strategies
      4. Examples
        1. Performing and Screen Arts Students
        2. Architecture Students in the iArchitecture 2010 Project
        3. Augmenting the Design Thinking Studio
        4. Journalism 2.0
      5. Discussion
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    2. 23. Flipped Classroom Meets Mobile Learning
      1. Approaching a Flipped Classroom
      2. Target Population
      3. Flipped-Classroom Models
        1. Pre-Training Model
        2. Inquiry Model
        3. Flipped-Mastery Model
        4. Project-Based Model
      4. Implementing, Sustaining, and Defending a Flipped Classroom
        1. The Big Question
        2. The Role of the Video
          1. Teacher-Created Videos
          2. Videos From the Internet at Large
        3. Dealing With Skeptics
          1. The Flipped-Class Model Simply Perpetuates Bad Teaching (Lecturing) Through New Technology
          2. Not All Students Have Equitable Access to Technology, and the Model Therefore Widens the Divide Between the Privileged and the Poor
          3. Homework Should Never Be Given
          4. Whose Technology?
      5. Unique Qualities
      6. Responses to a Flipped Classroom
        1. Student, Parent, School, Community, and Worldwide Response
          1. Student Response
          2. Parent Response
          3. Community Response
          4. Worldwide Response
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    3. 24. Team and Community Building Using Mobile Devices
      1. Building Community in the Classroom
        1. Benefits of Community Building in the Classroom
        2. Characteristics of the Millennials and iGeneration
        3. Collaboration as a 21st-Century Skill
        4. Future Work Skills
      2. Mobile-Device-Use Patterns Support Community Building
        1. Mobile-Phone Ownership and Use Patterns Among U.S. Teens
        2. Worldwide Use of Cell Phones
      3. Team-Building Activities Using Mobile Devices
        1. Challenges and Recommendations for Using Mobile Devices
        2. Guidelines for Implementation in Face-to-Face and Blended Settings
        3. Example Team- and Community-Building Activities
          1. Activity 1: Cell Sharing
          2. Activity Two: Texting Interviews
          3. Activity 3: Values Photos
          4. Activity 4: What Do We Have in Common
          5. Activity 5: Build a Bridge
          6. Activity 6: Peer Feedback
        4. Some Evidence: End-of-Course Survey
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
    4. 25. Mobile Teaching and Learning in the Classroom and Online: Case Studies in K–12
      1. M-Learning in K–12
        1. Project 1: Science Teacher iPad Deployment
      2. M-Learning with K–12 Online Learning
        1. Project 2: Virtual Schooling and mLCMS
      3. Lessons Learned from Both Projects
      4. Conclusions and Recommendations
      5. References
    5. 26. Using Mobile Technology to Enhance Teaching
      1. Background to the Study
      2. The Participants
      3. Theoretical Framework
      4. Learning to use Mobile Technology
        1. Questioning
        2. Testing: iPad Use
        3. Reflecting
        4. Feedback
      5. Using Mobile Technology in the Classroom
      6. What Was Learned from the Study?
      7. Summary and Conclusion
      8. References
    6. 27. Teachers’ Tools: Designing Customizable Applications for M-Learning Activities
      1. Overall Design Considerations and Approach
      2. Design Process: Implementation
      3. Emerging Issues and Future Research Directions
      4. References
    7. 28. iPad Human Interface Guidelines for M-Learning
      1. iPad Human Interface Guidelines: A Short Introduction
      2. Research Method
      3. Examination of Guidelines
        1. Aim to Support All Orientations
        2. Flatten Your Information Hierarchy
        3. Add Physicality and Heightened Realism
        4. Multi-Touch Gestures
        5. File-Handling
        6. Keyboard
      4. Human-Interface Principles
        1. Aesthetic Integrity
        2. Consistency
        3. Direct Manipulation
        4. Feedback
        5. Metaphors
        6. User Control
      5. Summary of Outcomes
        1. Importance of the Guidelines
        2. Criteria to Establish M-Learning in the Classroom
          1. Visual Aid
          2. Organization
          3. Material
          4. Choice of Applications
          5. Writing
          6. Managing Classes and Grades
          7. Connectivity
          8. Internet Research
          9. Battery Life
          10. Read Full Books for Free
          11. Group Projects
          12. Movies
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    8. 29. Three-Dimension Design for Mobile Learning: Pedagogical, Design, and Technological Considerations and Implications
      1. Purpose
      2. Context
      3. Three-Dimension Design Framework
        1. The Pedagogical Dimension
          1. Simulation
          2. Underlying Theories
        2. The Design Dimension
          1. Design of Strategies and Activities
          2. Problem Representation
          3. Making Decisions
          4. Self-Reflection
          5. Feedback
          6. Sequencing
          7. Screen Design
        3. The Technological Dimension
          1. User-Interface Design
          2. Platform Consideration
      4. Discussion and Implications
      5. References
    9. 30. Mobile Assessment: State of the Art
      1. Mobile Assessment
      2. Assessment and Computing
      3. Defining Mobile Assessment
      4. M-Assessment Practices
        1. Classroom Response Systems
        2. Self- and Peer Assessment
        3. Collaborative Assessment
        4. Computerized Adaptive Tests on Mobile Devices
        5. Dynamic Assessment
        6. Context-Aware Assessment
        7. Location-Aware Assessment
        8. mGBL Assessment
      5. Design and Implementation Technologies
        1. Design
        2. Implementation
          1. Sms
          2. Client-Server
          3. Manet
      6. Affordances and Constraints
        1. Affordances
        2. Constraints
      7. Conclusions
      8. References
    10. 31. mMOOC Design: Ubiquitous, Open Learning in the Cloud
      1. Short Look at MOOC and M-Learning
        1. Defining M-Learning
        2. Closer Look at MOOCs
        3. Example of a MobiMOOC Dynamic
        4. Combining M-Learning and MOOC
      2. Eight Contemporary Learning Needs of the Knowledge Age
      3. mMOOC DESIGN
        1. Background of the mMOOC Design
          1. Description of MobiMOOC
          2. Data on Mobile Use by MobiMOOC Participants
        2. mMOOC Architecture
        3. MOOC Versus mMOOC
        4. mMOOC in the Cloud
          1. Mobile Addition
        5. Adaptable Course Overview/Syllabus
          1. Mobile Addition
        6. The Central Agora
          1. Mobile Addition
        7. (Un)known Learner Audience
          1. Mobile Additions
        8. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning
          1. Mobile Additions
        9. Mobile Multimedia
        10. Choosing From the Mobile-Enabled Social-Media Toolkit
          1. Mobile Additions
        11. Room for mMOOC Improvement
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
  11. Part IV: Policies, Administration, and Management
    1. 32. Becoming a Mobile Insititution
      1. The Accidental Mobile Institution
      2. Preparing for the Already There
        1. Socializing a Good Idea
        2. The Long Island University iPad Initiative
        3. Strategizing Deployment
        4. The MyLIU App
      3. Launching a Deployment
        1. The Me Toos
      4. Assessing Outcomes
        1. Hidden Costs
        2. The Range of Faculty Technology Adoption
      5. Diy Deployment
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    2. 33. A Framework for Implementing Mobile Technology
      1. Mobile Initiatives in Higher Education
      2. Mobile Initiative at Ucf
      3. Mobile Implementation Framework
        1. Plan
          1. Stakeholders
          2. Project Goals
          3. Resources
          4. Project Timeline
        2. Test
          1. Testing Plan
          2. Testing the Application
          3. Testing Results
          4. Preparing for the Pilot
        3. Pilot
          1. System Analytics and Support-Call Volume
          2. Survey Demographics
          3. Self-Reported Mobile Learn Usage
          4. Student and Instructor Perception of M-Learning
        4. Release
          1. Marketing Plan
          2. Support Plan
      4. Conclusion
      5. Appendix 33.A
        1. Project Timeline
          1. Semesters 1 and 2: Planning Phase
          2. Semester 3: Testing Phase
          3. Semester 4: Pilot Phase
          4. Semesters 5 and 6: Implementation Phase
      6. Appendix 33.B
      7. Note
      8. References
    3. 34. So We Had This Idea: Bring Your Own Technology at Brebeuf Jesuit
      1. The Problem: Demand for Technology Increases While Funding Stays the Same
      2. The Process
        1. Setting the Context
        2. Integrating Mission, Education, and Technology
        3. Pulling the Trigger
        4. Details From the Grassroots: Developing the BYOT Strategic Plan
      3. Where the Tech Plan Met the Road
        1. Under the Hood
        2. Drawing Lines in the Sand
        3. Setting the Foundation
        4. Cloud Computing
        5. Opening up the Pipe
          1. Bandwidth
          2. Wireless
          3. Device Management
          4. Firewalls and Filtering
          5. Student Tracking
          6. Power and Backstock
        6. Equity of Access: Voluntary vs. Mandatory BYOT
        7. Policy Development
        8. Professional Development
      4. Growth and Outcomes
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    4. 35. Toward a Holistic Framework for Ethical Mobile Learning
      1. Ethical Issues with M-Learning
      2. Ethical Issues with Mobile Devices in the Educational Setting
      3. Why Ethical Issues Arise in M-Learning
      4. Professional Ethical Development
      5. A Framework for an Ethical Approach to M-Learning
        1. Formulating a Responsible Mobile-Use Policy
        2. Strategies for the Successful Implementation of an RMUP
      6. Conclusions
      7. References
    5. 36. Copyright and Fair Use in M-Learning
      1. The Purpose of Copyright Policy in the US
      2. The Practice of Fair Use
      3. Why Fair Use Frightens Educators and Students
      4. How Codes of Best Practices Have Expanded Access to Fair-Use Free-Speech Rights
      5. The International Challenge
      6. Conclusion
      7. Note
      8. References
    6. 37. Accessibility in M-Learning: Ensuring Equal Access
      1. Accessibility in Higher Education
      2. Accessibility and Universal Design
      3. Accessible M-Learning Recommendations
        1. Universal-Design Recommendations
        2. Disability Issues
        3. Device Selection
        4. Internet Accessibility
        5. Testing for Accessibility
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
    7. 38. The Role of Academic Libraries in the Development and Support of Mobile-Learning Environments
      1. A Brief History of Mobile Devices in Education
      2. Academic Library Resources and Services and M-Learning
      3. Attitudes of Academic Librarians Toward Technology
      4. M-Learning Environment and Library Support for Students and Faculty
      5. Discussion and Future Research
      6. Note
      7. References
  12. Part V: Cases and Perspectives
    1. 39. Mobile-Learning Strategies for K–12 Professional Development
      1. Professional Development Traits and Tendencies
        1. Rethinking the Approach
        2. M-Learning-Enhanced Professional Development
        3. Planning and Implementation
          1. Needs Assessment
          2. Leveraging Buy-In and Motivation
          3. Technology as a Tool
          4. Facilitating the Use of Mobile Devices
          5. Support
          6. Program Evaluation
      2. Professional-Development Models and Formats
        1. Conferences and Seminars
          1. Conference-Wide Collaboration
          2. Session Participation
          3. Collecting, Organizing, and Sharing
          4. Virtual Conferences
        2. Workshops and Presentations
          1. Essential Components
        3. Self-Directed
        4. Other Models and Formats
      3. Common Problems and Pitfalls
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
    2. 40. An Exploration of Mobile Learning to Enhance Student Performance in High-School Mathematics
      1. Problem, Background, and Justification
      2. Literature Review
      3. Design and Implementation
      4. Evaluation Studies
      5. Results
      6. Discussion
      7. Successes and Challenges
      8. Conclusion and Future Work
      9. References
    3. 41. Becoming a Digital Nomad: Transforming Education Through Mobile Devices
      1. M-Learning: Why is It Important?
      2. M-Learning Research and Theoretical Frameworks
        1. Education Theories
        2. Connectivism: An Alternative Educational Epistemology
      3. M-Learning: Opportunities and Challenges
        1. Opportunities
        2. Challenges
      4. Digital Nomads: College Students Learning on the Move
        1. M-Learning Projects
        2. Student Mobile Device Ownership and Use
        3. The M-Learning Experience: The Positives
        4. The M-Learning Experience: Areas for Improvement
        5. The Instructor M-Learning Experience
      5. Discussion and Conclusion: Becoming Digital Nomads
      6. Note
      7. References
    4. 42. Mobile-Medicine Praxis
      1. Introduction: A Select History of Telemedicine
      2. Population Served: Current Uses of Mobile Telemedicine
        1. Telemedicine Examples Using Mobile Technologies
          1. Teleradiology and PACS in California
          2. Teleendocrinology and Diabetes in Spain
          3. Teledermatology and Eczema in Norway
          4. Teleemergency Medicine in Canada
          5. Telemedicine in Laboratory Sciences in Italy
          6. Teledermatology in Texas
      3. Outcomes Desired: Mobile-Medicine Praxis
        1. Mobile-Medicine Defined
          1. Traditional Medical Education
          2. Andragogical Teaching and Learning
      4. Implications for M-Health
        1. Patient Satisfaction
        2. Medical Legal Considerations
        3. Early Implementation Examples
      5. The Future of Tablet-Based Telemedicine
      6. Conclusions
      7. References
    5. 43. A Mobile Knowledge Management System for Military Education
      1. The use of Mobile Technologies in Military Education
        1. Specific Requirements of Military Education
        2. Challenges and Opportunities in Mobile KM
      2. Learning Experiences with Mkms
        1. The mKMS Mission
        2. The System Architecture
        3. The Development Platform
        4. Performance in M-Learning Development
        5. mKMS Essentials
      3. Innovation in Mobile Knowledge-Based Learning
        1. M-Learning and Standardization: SCORM Compliance
        2. Rich Text Formatting Using Wikitext Markup
        3. Secure Mobile Connections
      4. Conclusions
      5. References
    6. 44. M-Learning During Emergencies, Disasters, and Catastrophes: An Australian Story
      1. In Crisis: Emergencies, Disasters and Catastrophes
      2. M-Learning and Crises
        1. Mobile Technologies
        2. M-Learning Defined
        3. Crisis M-Learning Framework
        4. Mobile Phones
        5. Mobile Social Media
        6. Mobile Communications
        7. Blurring of Formal and Informal Learning
      3. Conclusion
      4. Acknowledgements
      5. References
    7. 45. Improving Students’ Modern Language Speaking Skills Through Mobile Learning
      1. Problem
      2. Population Served/Targeted
      3. Description of Management Processes
      4. Speaking Activities with M-Learning
        1. Speaking
          1. Picture
          2. Series of Pictures
          3. Videos
          4. Voice Recording
          5. Flickr Speaking
          6. Translation and Conjugation Apps
          7. Phone Conversation
          8. Interest-Survey Reaction
          9. App Conversation
          10. Image Reaction
          11. Target-Language Songs
          12. Video House Tour
          13. Online Recordings with Voki
          14. Narrate Partner’s Pictures
        2. Speaking and Culture
          1. Contrast and Compare
          2. Sports Analysis
          3. Daily Culture with Webcams
          4. Weather Discussions
        3. Assessment of Speaking
          1. QR in Class Assessment
          2. Teacher Record of Student Data
          3. Students’ Progress
      5. Results
        1. Outcomes
        2. Successes
        3. Failures
        4. Advice
      6. Discussion and Conclusion Regarding M-Learning and Education
      7. Websites
      8. References
    8. 46. How Mobile Learning Facilitates Student Engagement: A Case Study from the Teaching of Spanish
      1. Problem Statement
      2. The Case Study
        1. Teaching Spanish to Undergraduates Through Simulated Immersion
        2. Audio Resources as a Central Focus
        3. Students with Mobile Devices Had Better Learning Outcomes
        4. M-Learning for All
      3. Outcomes
        1. Copyright Issues
        2. Technological Support
        3. Providing Students With Mobile Devices
      4. Discussion
      5. Conclusion
      6. Notes
      7. References
    9. 47. Architecture of a Device-Independent Collaborative Language Learning Game
      1. Pedagogical Concept
      2. Description of the Game
        1. Description of the Game States
        2. Login
        3. Wait/Idle State
        4. Write State
        5. Dispute State
        6. Vote State
        7. End of the Game and Reward Procedure
      3. Identification of the Connected Device
        1. Generalized Content
        2. Content Adaptation
      4. Analysis of the Test Results
      5. Conclusion and Considerations for the Future
      6. References
    10. 48. An International Perspective on Mobile Learning
      1. Major Issues in International M-Learning
        1. Local Culture, Resources, and Needs
        2. Connectivity
        3. Cost of Connecting to the Internet
        4. Availability of Mobile Devices (and What Works Best)
        5. Bandwidth Issues for Different Topics
        6. Technology-Transfer Restrictions, Including the Problem of Using Hard-Copy Books
        7. Learning Barriers (Such as a Low Percentage of High-School Graduates in the Area)
        8. Utilizing Local Teachers
        9. Language Barriers
        10. Local Commitment and Support
      2. Curriculum Development Necessities
        1. Creating Content in Deliverable Bites
      3. Adjusting Delivery Methods
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Further Reading
    11. 49. M-Powering the Poor Through Mobile Learning
      1. Introduction
      2. Mobile Phones Encourage Citizen Participation
        1. Challenge
        2. Mobile-centric Approach
        3. Results
      3. Mobiles Facilitate Quick Response to Medical Crisis
        1. Challenge
        2. Mobile-Centric Approach
        3. Results
      4. Using Cell Phones, Crowdsourcing to Get Water to the Thirsty
        1. Challenge—Will I Get Water Today?
        2. Mobile-Centric Approach
        3. Results
      5. Can Accessibility through Mobile Applications be Combined with Pedagogy to Build New Approaches for Learning?
        1. Build Learning Around What We Know About How People Use Mobiles
        2. Use Existing Frameworks for Effective Learning Design
        3. Examples of Lower Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy
        4. Example for Medium Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy
        5. Example for Higher Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy
        6. Design Learning at the Intersection of Learner, Device, and Social Aspects
        7. Creatively Blend Learning Methods and Tools
        8. Provide Opportunities for Learners to Generate Content
        9. Seize the Moment—Do Not Wait for the Latest Technology
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    12. 50. Acceptance of Tablet Devices for Learning and Teaching in Institutions of Higher Learning: The Malaysian Perspective
      1. Ict and the Development of M-Learning in Malaysia
      2. Usage of Tablet Devices in Institutions of Higher Learning
      3. The Benefits of Tablet-Device Usage in M-Learning
      4. Issues and Challenges with Usage of Tablet Devices
      5. A Study of Ipad Use in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning
        1. Findings
          1. Reason for Purchase of Tablet Devices
          2. Use of Tablet Devices Among Academicians
          3. Opinions on Introducing Tablet Devices for Learning and Teaching in Universities
          4. How Should Institutions Support Purchase of Tablet Devices?
          5. Reasons for Introducing Tablet Devices in Institutions
      6. Discussion
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    13. 51. Teachers as Learners: Concerns and Perceptions About Using Cell Phones in South African Rural Communities
      1. Context
      2. Theoretical Framework
      3. Methods
        1. Data Collection
        2. Teachers’ Profile
      4. Use of Cell Phones
        1. Concerns About Use of Cell Phones in Classrooms
        2. Concerns About Use of Cell Phones as Students
      5. Implications for Practice
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    14. 52. From Mxit to Dr Math
      1. Rapid Expansion
      2. Tutors
      3. Scheduling
      4. Sense of Community
      5. Nature of the Interactions
      6. More than Just Tutoring
        1. Competitions
        2. Lookup
        3. Encyclopedia
        4. Scientific Calculator
        5. Peer Collaboration
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    15. 53. Mobile Learning Games for Low-Income Children in India: Lessons from 2004–2009
      1. Problem Statement
      2. Population Targeted
      3. Research Goals and Outcomes Desired
      4. Process Description
        1. Needs Analysis (2004–2005)
        2. Formative Assessments and Emergent Design Methodologies (2006–2007)
        3. Summative Assessments (2008–2009)
      5. Discussion and Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. Notes
      8. References
  13. Index