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Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies by Teruaki Motooka, Ari Lehto, Markku Tilli, Veikko Lindroos

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Chapter Thirty Three. Glass Frit Bonding

Glass frit bonding is a widely used technology to cap and seal micro-electromechanical systems on the wafer level using structured capping wafers, mostly made from silicon. Glass frit bonding technology provides a wide range of possibilities for the bonding of wafers at process temperatures below 450°C. Nearly all the surface layers commonly used in silicon micromachining can be bonded using glass frits. Due to the use of melted glass in the bonding process, the main advantages of glass frit bonding are excellent hermetic sealing, high process yield, lower stress at the bonding interface, the possibility of incorporating metallic lead-throughs, high bonding strength, and good reliability. The process consists ...

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