OSI layer model

It's clear that if all of the disparate devices composing the internet are going to communicate seamlessly, there must be agreed-upon standards that define their communications. These standards are called protocols. Protocols define everything from the voltage levels on an Ethernet cable to how a JPEG image is compressed on a web page. It's clear that, when we talk about the voltage on an Ethernet cable, we are at a much different level of abstraction compared to talking about the JPEG image format. If you're programming a website, you don't want to think about Ethernet cables or Wi-Fi frequencies. Likewise, if you're programming an internet router, you don't want to have to worry about how JPEG images are compressed. For ...

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