APPENDIX A
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Sample ACS Distribution
Consider a time-continuous complex random process that is sampled every Δ seconds, and let z(t) be a complex random variable that takes on the value of the process at different sampling instants, given by tΔ for t = 0, 1, …, P − 1.
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(A.1)
In Eqn. (A.1), the scalars x(t) and y(t) are the real and imaginary parts of z(t), respectively, while m(t) and θ(t) are the associated magnitude and phase. It is assumed that x(t) and y(t) are zero mean Gaussian distributed random variables with the same variance σ2. It is further ...

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