Wave-Interference Model
A wide variety of high-frequency (HF) systems rely on the ionosphere as a radio wave propagation medium for operation over long distances well beyond the line-of-sight. Examples include HF communication links for transferring data or speech between remote sites, direction-finding networks for locating the position of distant HF emitters, and OTH radars used for early-warning wide-area surveillance. In practice, the performance of HF systems utilizing the ionosphere not only depends on the choice of operating parameters, but also on the characteristics of the propagation medium. For this reason, there is great ...

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