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High Integrity Systems and Safety Management in Hazardous Industries

Book Description

This book is about the engineering management of hazardous industries, such as oil and gas production, hydrocarbon refining, nuclear power and the manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Its scope includes an overview of design standards and processes for high integrity systems,safety management processes as applied to hazardous industries and details best practices in design, operations, maintenance and regulation.

Selected case studies are used to show how the complex multidisciplinary enterprises to design and operate hazardous plant can sometimes fail. This includes the subtlety and fragility of the robust safety culture that is required.

It is aimed at professional engineers who design, build and operate these hazardous plants. This book is also written for business schools and university engineering departments where engineering management is studied.

  • An overview of design standards and processes for high integrity systems
  • An overview of safety management processes as applied to hazardous industries
  • Best practices in design, operations, maintenance and regulation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. About the Author
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. Abstract
    2. Hazardous industries, high-integrity systems and management processes
    3. The structure of this book
  9. Part 1: High-integrity Safety Instrumented Systems
    1. Chapter 2: The Design of High-integrity Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Systems for Hazardous Plant Control and Protection
      1. Abstract
      2. The Safety Lifecycle for the Development of I&C Systems
      3. Reliability Requirements for High-integrity Systems
      4. The “software problem” and software quality management
      5. Functional specifications, traceability, and the V-model
      6. High-integrity software: Setting up a software project
      7. Techniques and measures to produce high-integrity software
      8. I&C failure analysis techniques
      9. Common-mode failure
      10. I&C architecture
      11. The selection of logic elements and vendors for high-integrity industrial safety systems
      12. Quality management of software suppliers
    2. Chapter 3: Cyber Security, Cyber-attack and Cyber-espionage
      1. Abstract
      2. Stuxnet
      3. APT1
      4. Industrial control system architecture and cyber-attack
    3. Chapter 4: The Human–Machine Interface
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. A note on pitot tubes
      4. Birgenair 301, February 6, 1996
      5. Aeroperu 603, October 2, 1996
      6. A note on high-altitude upsets and angle of attack
      7. Air France 447, June 1, 2009
      8. Synthesis
    4. Chapter 5: Some Case Studies of Software and Microprocessor Failures
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Qantas flight 72: A serious incident involving smart devices with mixed control and protection
      4. Discussion of Qantas 72 incident
      5. Uljin Nuclear Power Plant, South Korea, 1999
      6. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant, Japan, 2001
      7. North sea pipe handling system fatal accident, 2008
      8. Auto recalls for software faults
    5. Chapter 6: Managing the Safety of Aging I&C Equipment
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction: The problem of aging i&c equipment
      3. Basic knowledge and understanding that must be retained by the plant operators
      4. I&C lifecycle issues
      5. Maintenance management
      6. Maintenance planning
      7. Procurement aspects
      8. Key performance indicators (KPIs) for aging I&C equipment
      9. Specific aging failure mechanisms
      10. Case study: Buncefield 2005
  10. Part 2: Historical Overviews of High-Integrity Technologies
    1. Chapter 7: Learning from Ignorance: A Brief History of Pressure Vessel Integrity and Failures
      1. Abstract
      2. The sultana disaster, Tennessee, 1865
      3. Boiler explosions and developments in boiler technology during the First Industrial Revolution
      4. The Cockenzie steam drum failure, 1966
      5. Modeling the fracture of pressure vessels
      6. The accuracy and reliability of non-destructive examination
      7. Dounreay, 1981 – safety valve testing on a steam drum
      8. The SS Norway boiler explosion, Miami, 2003
    2. Chapter 8: The Second Industrial Revolution – A Brief History of Computing
      1. Abstract
  11. Part 3: Safety Management
    1. Chapter 9: Introduction: Organization and Safety Culture
      1. Abstract
      2. The Swiss cheese model
      3. Royal air force nimrod crash, Afghanistan, September 2, 2006
      4. The meaning of safety in a military environment
    2. Chapter 10: Management Systems to Prevent or Mitigate Accidents
      1. Abstract
      2. The health, safety and environmental management system
      3. Personnel recruitment and training
      4. Safe working arrangements
      5. Design engineering and safety functional requirements
      6. Technical safety and technical risk assessments
      7. Engineering changes and safety case changes
      8. Accident and incident investigations
      9. Emergency planning
      10. Corrective action tracking
      11. Synthesis
    3. Chapter 11: The Human Factor
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. The Port of Ramsgate walkway accident, 1994
      4. Saudia Flight 163: human behavior during crisis management
      5. Conclusions
    4. Chapter 12: Hydrocarbon Processing
      1. Abstract
      2. Pipeline rupture and fire, Washington State, USA, June 10, 1999
      3. Equilon Anacortes refinery coking plant accident, November 25, 1998
    5. Chapter 13: Offshore Oil and Gas: Piper Alpha and Mumbai High
      1. Abstract
      2. Piper Alpha accident and the Cullen report
      3. Offshore safety training
      4. Mumbai High, July 2005
      5. Piper Alpha and Mumbai High: Common lessons?
    6. Chapter 14: BP
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. BP Texas City refinery – prelude to the accident
      4. The accident at BP Texas City
      5. Aberdeen 2007 to 2009
      6. The Macondo-Deepwater Horizon blowout, fire and oilspill, April to July 2010
      7. The Macondo-Deepwater Horizon accident, April 20, 2010
      8. So what went wrong?
      9. Why did the blowout preventer fail to work?
      10. Aftermath
      11. Texas City and Macondo-Deepwater Horizon – Can any general conclusions be drawn about BP? – Can any general conclusions be drawn about BP?
    7. Chapter 15: Chernobyl and Fukushima
      1. Abstract
      2. Prelude: Tourism behind the Iron Curtain, 1984
      3. Generic technical safety requirements for all nuclear reactors
      4. Stability and predictability of nuclear reactor behavior
      5. Nuclear reactor technology in the Soviet Union
      6. The Chernobyl accident
      7. Aftermath – Radiological and health consequences
      8. Chernobyl: Indirect Causes of the Accident
      9. The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, March 11, 2011
      10. The accidents at Fukushima Daiichi
      11. Major technical issues
      12. Other Lessons Learned, cultural issues, and consequences for the nuclear industry elsewhere
      13. Radiological and health consequences
      14. Common threads between Chernobyl and Fukushima: National cultural issues and independent nuclear safety regulation
    8. Chapter 16: Toxic Releases
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction: Seveso, Bhopal, Mississauga, Sandoz
      3. Toxic releases at DuPont Belle, West Virginia, January 22–23, 2010
    9. Chapter 17: Tragedies of the Commons
      1. Abstract
      2. The Great Stink of 1858
      3. The Great London Smog of 1952
      4. World population in the twenty-first century
      5. Global warming in the twenty-first century
    10. Chapter 18: Conclusions
      1. Abstract
      2. Some key themes in safety instrumented systems
      3. Some key themes in safety management
      4. Final words
      5. Further reading
    11. Appendix 1: Experience and Judgment
    12. Appendix 2: Roger Boisjoly, the Challenger Accident, and Whistle-Blowing
    13. Index