1.1 Preliminary Remarks

The function of an electric drives system is the controlled conversion of electrical energy to a mechanical form, and vice versa, via a magnetic field. Electric drives is a multi-disciplinary field of study, requiring proper integration of knowledge of electrical machines, actuators, power electronic converters, sensors and instrumentation, control hardware and software, and communication links (Figure 1.1). There have been continued developments in the field of electric drives since the inception of the first principle of electrical motors by Michael Faraday in 1821 [1]. The world dramatically changed after the first induction machine was patented (US Patent 381968) by Nikola Tesla in 1888 [2]. Initial research focused on machine design with the aim of reducing the weight per unit power and increasing the efficiency of the motor. Constant efforts by researchers have led to the development of energy efficient industrial motors with reduced volume machines. The market is saturated with motors reaching a high efficiency of almost 95–96%, resulting in no more significant complaints from users [3]. AC motors are broadly classified into three groups: synchronous, asynchronous (induction), and electronically commutated motors. Asynchronous motors are induction motors with a field wound circuit or with squirrel cage rotors. Synchronous motors run at synchronous speeds decided by the supply frequency () and are classified into three major types: rotor excited, permanent ...

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