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High-Speed Precision Motion Control

Book Description

Edited by Takashi Yamaguchi, Mitsuo Hirate, and Chee Khiang Pang, with contributions from pioneers known for their ground-breaking work, High-Speed Precision Motion Control discusses high-precision and fast servo controls in hard disk drives (HDDs). The chapter authors describe the control technologies they’ve developed, most of which have already been successfully applied to mass production of HDDs. As the proposed methodologies have been verified on commercial HDDs at the very least, these advanced control technologies can also be readily applied to precision motion control of other mechatronic systems, e.g., scanners, micro-positioners, photocopiers, atomic force microscopes (AFMs), etc.

Each self-contained chapter progresses from concept to technique and presents application examples in automotive, aerospace, aeronautical, and manufacturing engineering. The control technologies are categorized into high-speed servo control, precision control, and environment-friendly control, making it easy to find an appropriate control technology according to their domain of application. The book also makes MATLAB®/SIMULINK® codes for benchmark problems available for download.

The control technologies described range from fundamental classical control theories to advanced topics such as multi-rate control. The content contains a healthy balance between materials from the contributor’s research works and that in the wider literature. The resulting resource empowers engineers and managers with the knowledge and know-how to make important decisions and policies.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. Preface
  9. About the Editors
  10. List of Contributors
  11. Nomenclature
  12. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Concept of High-Speed Precision Motion Control
    2. 1.2 Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)
    3. Bibliography
  13. 2 System Modeling and Identification
    1. 2.1 HDD Servo Systems
      1. 2.1.1 Inside an HDD
      2. 2.1.2 Generation of Servo Position Signal
    2. 2.2 TMR Budget Design
    3. 2.3 Modeling of HDD
      1. 2.3.1 Introduction
      2. 2.3.2 Plant Components
      3. 2.3.3 Modeling of Mechanical Dynamics
    4. 2.4 Modeling of Disturbances and PES
      1. 2.4.1 Disturbances and PES
      2. 2.4.2 Decomposition of Steady-State PES
        1. 2.4.2.1 RRO and NRRO
        2. 2.4.2.2 Frequency Spectrum of NRRO
        3. 2.4.2.3 Decomposition of NRRO
      3. 2.4.3 Decomposition of Transient Response
    5. Bibliography
  14. 3 Basic Approach to High-Speed Precision Motion Control
    1. 3.1 Introduction to Mode Switching Control (MSC)
    2. 3.2 Track-Seeking: Fast Access Servo Control
      1. 3.2.1 Two-Degrees-of-Freedom (TDOF) Control
        1. 3.2.1.1 Advantages of TDOF Control
        2. 3.2.1.2 Structure of TDOF Control
        3. 3.2.1.3 Zero-Phase Error Tracking Control (ZPETC)
        4. 3.2.1.4 Reference Trajectory
      2. 3.2.2 Access Servo Control Considering Saturation
        1. 3.2.2.1 Basic Structure of Access Servo Control
        2. 3.2.2.2 Reference Velocity Trajectory
        3. 3.2.2.3 Proximate Time-Optimal Servomechanism (PTOS)
    3. 3.3 Track-Settling: Initial Value Compensation (IVC)
      1. 3.3.1 Concept of IVC
        1. 3.3.1.1 Initialization of Controller State Variable
        2. 3.3.1.2 Design of Mode Switching Condition
      2. 3.3.2 IVC Design Method
      3. 3.3.3 Optimal Design of Mode Switching Condition
    4. 3.4 Track-Following: Single- and Multi-Rate Control
      1. 3.4.1 Single-Rate Control
        1. 3.4.1.1 Introduction
        2. 3.4.1.2 Lead Compensator and PI Controller
        3. 3.4.1.3 Notch Filter
        4. 3.4.1.4 Observer State Feedback Control
        5. 3.4.1.5 Pole Placement Technique
        6. 3.4.1.6 Optimal Control Design
      2. 3.4.2 Multi-Rate Control
        1. 3.4.2.1 Introduction
        2. 3.4.2.2 Problem Formulation
        3. 3.4.2.3 Multi-RateObserver
    5. 3.5 Episode: Development of IVC Design Method in Industry
    6. Bibliography
  15. 4 Ultra-Fast Motion Control
    1. 4.1 Vibration-Minimized Trajectory Design
      1. 4.1.1 Introduction
      2. 4.1.2 Final State Control (FSC) Theory
      3. 4.1.3 Vibration Minimized Trajectory Design Based on Final State Control
      4. 4.1.4 Application to Track-Seeking Control in HDDs
    2. 4.2 Perfect Tracking Control (PTC)
      1. 4.2.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2.2 PTC Theory
      3. 4.2.3 Vibration Suppression Using PTC
        1. 4.2.3.1 With MPVT
        2. 4.2.3.2 With Parallel Realization
        3. 4.2.3.3 With Modified Controllable Canonical Realization
      4. 4.2.4 Simulations and Experiments
        1. 4.2.4.1 Simulations Using Nominal Model
        2. 4.2.4.2 Experiments on HDDs
    3. Bibliography
  16. 5 Ultra-Precise Position Control
    1. 5.1 Phase-Stable Design for High Servo Bandwidth
      1. 5.1.1 Modeling of Controlled Object
      2. 5.1.2 Controller Design Based on Vector Locus
        1. 5.1.2.1 Relationship between Vector Locus and Sensitivity Transfer Function
        2. 5.1.2.2 Vector Locus of Controlled Object
      3. 5.1.3 Controller Design
        1. 5.1.3.1 Case 1: Gain-Stable Design for All Mechanical Resonant Modes
        2. 5.1.3.2 Case 2: Phase-Stable Design for Primary Mechanical Resonant Mode
        3. 5.1.3.3 Case 3: Phase-Stable Design for All Mechanical Resonant Modes
        4. 5.1.3.4 Comparison of Control Performances
    2. 5.2 Robust Control Using H∞ Control Theory
      1. 5.2.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2.2 Mathematical Representation of Plant Uncertainties
        1. 5.2.2.1 Multiplicative Uncertainty
        2. 5.2.2.2 Additive Uncertainty
      3. 5.2.3 Robust Stability Problem
      4. 5.2.4 H∞ Control Theory
      5. 5.2.5 Various H∞ Control Problems
        1. 5.2.5.1 Sensitivity Minimization Problem
        2. 5.2.5.2 Mixed Sensitivity Problem
      6. 5.2.6 Application of H∞ Control to HDDs
    3. 5.3 Multi-Rate H∞ Control
      1. 5.3.1 Multi-Rate Discrete-Time H∞ Control
      2. 5.3.2 Multi-Rate Sampled-Data H∞ Control
    4. 5.4 Repetitive Control
      1. 5.4.1 Introduction
      2. 5.4.2 Repetitive Perfect Tracking Control (RPTC)
        1. 5.4.2.1 Discrete-Time Plant Model with Multi-Rate Hold
        2. 5.4.2.2 Design of PTC
      3. 5.4.3 Design of RPTC
      4. 5.4.4 Applications to RRO Rejection in HDDs
      5. 5.4.5 Experiments on RPTC
    5. 5.5 Acceleration Feedforward Control (AFC)
      1. 5.5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.5.2 Necessity for AFC
      3. 5.5.3 Types of AFC
        1. 5.5.3.1 Constant-Type AFC
        2. 5.5.3.2 Filter-Type AFC
        3. 5.5.3.3 Transfer Function-Type AFC
        4. 5.5.3.4 Adaptive Identification-Type AFC
      4. 5.5.4 Performance Evaluation for AFC
      5. 5.5.5 Applications of AFC
        1. 5.5.5.1 ApplicationtoVehicles
        2. 5.5.5.2 Application to Industrial Robots
      6. Bibliography
  17. 6 Control Design for Consumer Electronics
    1. 6.1 Control System Design for Energy Efficiency
      1. 6.1.1 Interlacing Controller
      2. 6.1.2 Short-Track Seeking Using TDOF Control with IVC
    2. 6.2 Controller Design for Low Acoustic Noise Seek
      1. 6.2.1 Short-Span Seek Control for Low Acoustic Noise
      2. 6.2.2 Long-Span Seek Control for Low Acoustic Noise
    3. 6.3 Servo Control Design Based on SRS Analysis
      1. 6.3.1 Seeking Noise
      2. 6.3.2 Concept and Procedure of SRS Analysis
      3. 6.3.3 Models for SRS Analysis
      4. 6.3.4 Examples of SRS Analyses
      5. 6.3.5 Acoustic Noise Reduction Based on SRS Analysis
    4. Bibliography
  18. 7 HDD Benchmark Problem
    1. 7.1 Public Release of the HDD Benchmark Problem
    2. 7.2 PlantModel
    3. 7.3 DisturbanceModel
      1. 7.3.1 ForceDisturbance
      2. 7.3.2 FlutterDisturbance
      3. 7.3.3 RRO
      4. 7.3.4 MeasurementNoise
    4. 7.4 Overview of the HDD Benchmark Problem Version 3
    5. 7.5 Example of Controller Design
      1. 7.5.1 Track-Following Control Problem
      2. 7.5.2 Track-Seeking Control Problem
    6. Bibliography
  19. Index