Chapter 16. On-Chip Link Measurement Techniques
Dan Oh, Hai Lan, Ralf Schmitt, and Elad Alon
High-speed digital design depends on more than the accurate modeling described in previous chapters; it also depends on the tests and measurements necessary to verify the accuracy of those models.
Passive interconnects can be characterized either in the time domain, using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), or in the frequency domain, using Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). On the other hand, active devices (such as transmitters and receivers) can be tested using real-time oscilloscopes, digital sampling oscilloscopes, or a bit error tester (BERT). These measurement tools are a powerful and integral part of high-speed design yet they have the following limitations. ...