The initial conditions of the Universe can be summarized on a single sheet of paper. The small number of parameters that provide an accurate statistical description of these initial conditions are summarized in table 3.1. However, thousands of books in libraries throughout the world cannot summarize the complexities of galaxies, stars, planets, life, and intelligent life in the present-day Universe. If we feed the simple initial cosmic conditions into a gigantic computer simulation incorporating the known laws of physics, we should be able to reproduce all the complexity that emerged out of the simple early Universe. Hence, all the information associated with this later complexity was encapsulated in those simple initial ...

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