CHAPTER 4

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

Its Past, Present, and Future

Introduction

There are several steps involved in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs) or any semiconductor product which include the process steps such as photolithography, etching, metal deposition, etc. As the semiconductor industry evolved, each of these operations was typically performed by specialized machines built by a variety of commercial companies. If there is progress of only one semiconductor manufacturing step but no progress of others then it becomes difficult for the industry to advance, since in many cases it does no good for a company to introduce a new product if the other necessary steps are not available around the same time. ...

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