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How to Do Everything: Genealogy, Fourth Edition

Book Description

Discover your genealogy using the latest methods Thoroughly revised to cover new tools, techniques, and data, How to Do Everything: Genealogy, Fourth Edition uniquely addresses all the major genealogical record types and explains traditional and digital research strategies. Genealogy expert George G. Morgan shows you how to research your family history using the most current websites, mobile apps, social networking sites, record archives, census data, digital records, DNA research, and more. Discover your family’s past with help from the new edition of this bestselling guide. Start an effective, well-organized genealogical research project Work with traditional, electronic, and genetic research Analyze and organize your family information Locate and access genealogy records in the U.S., U.K., Ireland, Canada, and Australia Place your ancestors in geographical and historical context Learn successful Internet search techniques Locate vital, civil registration, census, and church records Track down military, property, and immigration and naturalization records Access libraries, archives, and other repositories online Research and verify your ancestors using genetic genealogy (DNA) Get past brick walls and dead ends Incorporate social networking into your research

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents at a Glance
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Part I Begin Your Family History Odyssey
    1. Chapter 1 What Is Genealogy?
      1. Understand the Difference Between Genealogy and Family History
      2. Assess What Constitutes a Family
      3. Motivations for Genealogical Research
      4. Documentary, Hearsay, and Genetic Evidence
    2. Chapter 2 How Do I Get Started?
      1. Start at the Beginning: Yourself and Your Family
      2. Discover Sources of Information in Your Own Home
        1. Vital Records and Civil Registration Records
        2. Religious Records
        3. Personal or Family Bible
        4. Photograph Albums
        5. Scrapbooks
        6. Letters and Postcards
        7. Diaries and Journals
        8. Family Histories
        9. Local Histories
        10. Baby Books
        11. Marriage Books and Photograph Albums
        12. Funeral Books and Memorial Cards
        13. Identification Documents
        14. Immigration Papers
        15. Naturalization Papers
        16. Land Records
        17. Military Records
        18. Directories
        19. Religious Publications
        20. School Records
        21. Employment Records
        22. Search for the Less-Than-Obvious Items
      3. Interview All Your Relatives
        1. Consider Several Types of Interviews
        2. Schedule Interviews for Best Results
        3. Ask the Right Questions
        4. Use the Right Equipment for Your Interviews
        5. Set the Tone of the Interview
        6. Don’t Forget the “Thank You”
      4. Begin to Organize What You Find
      5. Get Started!
    3. Chapter 3 Balance Traditional, Electronic, and Genetic Research
      1. Be a Modern Genealogical Researcher
      2. Understand Traditional Research
      3. Discover Documentary Evidence and Where It Is Found
        1. Books, Journals, and Periodicals
        2. Manuscripts and Oral Histories
        3. Maps
        4. Indexes
        5. Histories
        6. Biographies
        7. Newspapers
        8. Documents from Many Traditional Locations and Sources
      4. Learn About Electronic Research Materials
      5. Understand Electronic Research Materials
        1. Email and Mailing Lists
        2. Message Boards
        3. Web Pages
        4. Compilations, Directories, and Specialized Indexes
        5. Search Engines
        6. Subscription Internet Sites for Genealogy
        7. Blogs
        8. Podcasts and Videocasts
        9. Webinars
        10. Streaming Video from Conferences
      6. Include DNA Testing in Your Research
      7. Integrate Traditional, Electronic, and Genetic Research Findings
    4. Chapter 4 Analyze and Organize Your Family Information
      1. Understand the Genealogical Proof Standard
      2. Recognize and Evaluate Original vs. Derivative Sources
        1. Understand Types of Derivative Sources
        2. Avoid Errors in Derivative Sources
      3. Evaluate Primary vs. Secondary Information in Original Records
        1. Birth Certificates
        2. Marriage Certificates
        3. Death Certificates
        4. Obituaries
        5. Cemetery Markers
        6. Bible Entries
      4. Apply Critical Thinking Skills to Your Genealogical Research
      5. Place Your Ancestors into Context
      6. Format Names, Dates, and Locations Correctly
        1. Record Names
        2. Record Dates
        3. Record Locations
      7. Work with Pedigree Charts
      8. Work with Family Group Sheets
        1. Record Multiple Family Units with a Common Spouse
        2. How to Handle Non-traditional Family Units
        3. How to Record Adopted Children
      9. Create Source Citations for Your Data
      10. Select a Family Tree Format
    5. Chapter 5 Place Ancestors into Context and Locate Their Basic Records
      1. Place Your Ancestors into Context
      2. Become a Student of History
        1. Family Histories
        2. County and Local Histories
        3. State and Provincial Histories
        4. National and World History
      3. Use Maps to Locate the Right Place to Research
        1. Avoid Wasted Time and Energy
        2. Use Maps for Multiple Purposes
        3. Use a Methodology That Works
      4. Locate Birth, Marriage, and Death Records
        1. Locate Birth Certificates
        2. Find Marriage Licenses and Certificates
        3. Before Civil Registration
        4. Research Divorce Records
        5. Locate Death Certificates
      5. Locate Domestic Partnership and Civil Partnership Records
      6. Deal with Suspected Name Changes
      7. Summary
    6. Chapter 6 Use Census Schedules and Records to Locate Your Ancestors
      1. Locate and Access Census Records in the Digital Age
      2. Understand and Work with United States Census Records
        1. Understand Originals vs. Copies of Census Documents
        2. Use Strategies to Work with Population Schedules
        3. Don’t Overlook the 1885 Census
        4. Use Substitutes for the 1890 Census
        5. Use More than Just the Population Schedules
        6. Use Census Finding Aids to Locate Your Ancestors
        7. Use Excellent U.S. Census Reference Books
        8. Access the Census Images on Microfilm and in Online Databases
        9. Don’t Forget to Search State Censuses
      3. Understand and Work with British and Irish Census Records
        1. Work with England’s and Wales’ Census Records
        2. Learn the Status of Irish Census Records
        3. Use Quality Reference Materials When Working with British and Irish Census Records
        4. Access the Census Records for Britain and Ireland
        5. Access the Records of the 1939 National Identity Card Registration
      4. Understand and Work with Canadian Census Records
        1. Explore the Depth of the 1871 Census for Canada
      5. Locate Additional Information on the Censuses
  10. Part II Expand Your Research
    1. Chapter 7 Extend Your Research with Advanced Record Types
      1. Use Religious Records
        1. Locate the Right Institution
        2. Determine What Records the Institution Might Have Created
        3. Locate the Records Today
        4. Gain Access to the Records
        5. Interpret, Evaluate, and Place the Records into Perspective
        6. Consider a Variety of Religious Records
      2. Obtain and Analyze Mortuary and Funeral Home Records
      3. Read Between the Lines in Obituaries
      4. Locate and Delve into Cemetery Records
      5. Search for Other Death-Related Documents
      6. Get Inside Your Ancestor’s Mind Using Wills and Probate Records
        1. Understand the Meaning of a Will and Testament
        2. Understand the Probate Process
        3. Learn What a Will Can Tell You—Literally and by Implication
        4. Examine the Contents of a Probate Packet
        5. Watch for Clues and Pointers in the Probate Packet
        6. Remember Why You Really Want to Examine Documents Yourself
        7. Locate and Obtain Copies of Wills and Probate Documents
      7. Obtain Information from the Social Security Administration and Railroad Retirement Board
        1. Obtain Information from the Social Security Administration
        2. Obtain Information from the Railroad Retirement Board
      8. Use Historical Newspapers to Learn About Your Ancestor’s Life Events
      9. Consider Other Institutional Record Types
    2. Chapter 8 Use the Many Types of Military Service Records
      1. Expand Your Knowledge of Military Service
      2. Investigate Military History for the Appropriate Time Period
      3. Identify Possible Sources for Military Records
        1. Locate Military Records in the United States
        2. Locate Canadian Military Records
        3. Locate Military Records in the United Kingdom
        4. Locate Australian Military Records
      4. Examine Samples of Military Records
        1. Locate Enlistment and Draft Registration Records
        2. Military Muster Rolls and Pay Records
        3. Seek Out Educational and Training Records
        4. Look for Military Station and Duty Assignment Orders
        5. Promotions and Commissions
        6. Locate Military Discharge and Separation Records
        7. Death and Burial Records
      5. Locate Other Military-Related Records
    3. Chapter 9 Understand and Use Land and Property Records
      1. Locate and Use Land and Property Records in the United States
        1. Learn About the Organization of State and Public Lands
        2. Locate Land and Property Records
        3. Learn About Types of Records
      2. Learn About Land and Property Records in Canada
        1. Land Measurement in Canada
        2. Land Systems Used in Canada
        3. Taxation and Duty Records
        4. Locate the Land Records
      3. Learn About Land and Property Records in the United Kingdom
        1. How Many Manors Were There?
        2. Manorial Records
      4. Locate Land and Property Records Online
      5. Place Your Ancestors into Context with Property Records
    4. Chapter 10 Locate and Use Immigration and Naturalization Records
      1. Understand Why People Migrate
      2. Locate and Use U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Records
        1. Learn About How Our Ancestors Traveled
        2. Learn About the History of Ships’ Passenger Lists
        3. Learn About U.S. Passport Records
      3. Locate and Access Canadian Immigration Records
      4. Locate and Access Australian Immigration Records
        1. Learn About Australian History
        2. Locate the Existing Australian Immigration Records
      5. Use Strategies for Determining Your Ancestor’s Migration Path
        1. Start with What You Know
        2. Locate and Use the U.S. Federal Census Population Schedules
        3. Use City and Telephone Directories
        4. Refer to Vital Documents and Ecclesiastical Records
        5. Don’t Overlook Voter Registration and Jury Records
        6. Look for Passport Records
        7. Study Published Histories
        8. Look for Books About Early Settlers
      6. Use Other Strategies for Determining Your Ancestor’s Place of Origin
        1. Use Photographic Images
        2. Look at Home for Letters Written in Another Language
        3. Consider Family Customs
        4. Find Clues in Culinary Styles
        5. Pay Attention to Family Physical Traits
        6. Use the Resources at the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Website
      7. Understand the Naturalization Process
        1. Locate Repositories Where Naturalization and Related Documents Are Housed
      8. Work Immigration, Naturalization, and Census Records in Tandem
    5. Chapter 11 Discover Where to Locate Evidence About Your Family
      1. Determine Where to Look for Different Document Types
      2. Use Indexes and Other Finding Aids
        1. Use Indexes
        2. Use Other Finding Aids
      3. Use Libraries and Archives
        1. Learn How to Use the Library Catalog
        2. Start with What Has Already Been Done
        3. Use the Library of Congress Online Catalog
      4. Use the FamilySearch Catalog and the LDS Family History Centers
      5. Consult Reference Books and Other Resources
        1. Locate the Repository on the Internet
        2. Contact the Repository
        3. Seek Help from a State, Provincial, or National Library or Archive
        4. Contact Genealogical and Historical Societies at All Levels
        5. Engage a Professional Researcher
      6. Deal with Closed or Limited Access to Materials
        1. Be Prepared to Provide Proof of Your Relationship
        2. Offer to Pay All the Expenses
        3. Provide Letters of Authorization or Permission to Access
        4. Invoke the Use of the Freedom of Information Act
        5. Obtain a Court Order
      7. Order Document Copies by Postal Mail, Email, and Online
      8. Keep Track of Your Correspondence
      9. Use a Research Log
      10. Set Up and Use a Filing System
        1. Paper Documents
        2. Digital Files
        3. Summary Regarding Filing Systems
  11. Part III Employ Advanced Strategies and Electronic Tools
    1. Chapter 12 Assess Internet Websites to More Successfully Research Your Ancestors
      1. Categorize the Major Types of Internet Resources
      2. Categorize the Major Types of Genealogical Web Page Resources
        1. Compilation Sites
        2. “How-to,” Educational, and Reference Sites
        3. Genealogy Charts and Forms
        4. Online Databases
        5. Genealogical Societies
      3. Structure Effective Searches to Locate Information
        1. Define the Difference Between Search Engines and Directories
        2. Use a Search Engine to Get Great Results
      4. Use Another Way to Fine-Tune Your Google Searches
      5. Use Mailing Lists and Message Boards to Share Information and Collaborate with Others
        1. What Is a Mailing List?
        2. What Is a Message Board?
        3. Write Effective Messages and Postings That Get Results
      6. Locate and Use Additional Resources in Your Research
        1. Online Map Resources
        2. Dictionaries
        3. Language Translation
        4. Historical and Biographical Resources
        5. Calendars
        6. People Finders and Telephone Directories
    2. Chapter 13 Research and Verify Your Ancestors Using Genetic Genealogy (DNA)
      1. Learn About DNA and Its Place in Genealogical Research
      2. Discover the Difference Between Paternal Testing, Maternal Testing, Autosomal Testing, and the Results
      3. Test Processes and Results
      4. Learn About Genetic Testing Services
      5. Join a DNA Surname Project on the Internet
      6. Learn More About Genetic Genealogy
    3. Chapter 14 Use Alternative Research Strategies to Locate Difficult-to-Find Ancestors
      1. Recognize When You Have Hit a “Brick Wall”
      2. Look for Alternate Record Types
      3. Take a Fresh Look at Your Evidence
      4. Reevaluate the Quality of Your Sources
      5. Dissect Obituaries
      6. Widen the Scope of Your Search to Include New and Different Sources
      7. Use Photographs in Your Family Research
        1. Learn About the Types of Photographs
        2. Date Photographs Using Clothing and Hair Fashions
      8. Switch to Another Family Member to Bypass Your Roadblock
      9. Seek Help from Libraries, Archives, Museums, and Societies
      10. Engage the Help of a Professional Researcher
        1. Locate a Qualified Professional Genealogical Researcher
        2. Define the Scope of the Work to Be Performed
        3. Establish Guidelines, Goals, and Milestones
        4. Document the Relationship
        5. Conclude the Relationship
      11. Consider Some Common Brick Walls
    4. Chapter 15 Incorporate Social Networking into Your Genealogy Research
      1. Locate and Use Blogs
      2. Use Wikis and Collaborate with Others
      3. Enjoy Podcasts and Online Radio Broadcasts
      4. Learn More About Genealogical Research with Internet Videos
      5. Attend Live Webinars and Access Recorded Webinars
      6. Learn About and Use the Latest Social Media Resources
        1. Facebook
        2. Genealogy Wise
        3. Google+
        4. Twitter
      7. Learn About Hardware and Software for the Tech-Savvy Genealogist
      8. Use Smartphone Apps for Genealogy-on-the-Go
        1. BillionGraves Camera App (Free & Fee)
        2. CousinCalc (Free)
        3. FamilySearch Memories (Free)
        4. FamilySearch Tree
        5. Family Tree History and Genealogy Coat of Arms of Last Names (Free & Fee)
        6. Find A Grave
        7. National Geographic World Atlas (Free)
        8. Atlas 2014 (Free)
        9. Research Logger (Free)
        10. Wolfram Genealogy & History Research Assistant (Fee)
  12. Index