2Social, political, andeconomic evolution of Iraq,1920–1990

This chapter tracks key political, social, and economic developments in Iraq from roughly the formation of the state in 1920 to the end of the period of study in 1990. It is necessarily selective and incomplete when read as an historical summary. However, the chapter underscores the extent to which income measures alone are inadequate as indicators of development, and illustrates why the alternative approach using the human development paradigm is preferred.

The first section of the chapter reveals the existence of substantial social cleavages and historically repressive polity. This delineates the initial conditions concerning political and human rights in Iraq and facilitates their ...

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