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Human Factors in the Chemical and Process Industries

Book Description

Human Factors in the Chemical and Process Industries: Making it Work in Practice is a comprehensive overview of human factors within this sector, focusing on the practical application. It has been written by acknowledged industry experts from the Keil Centre, which is a leading practice of chartered ergonomics and human factors specialists, chartered safety specialists, registered occupational psychologists, and registered clinical psychologists

The book was inspired by the international human factors training course run by the Keil Centre with the IChemE(http://www.icheme.org/human-factors), which has reached four continents across the world. The book is written for those who want a comprehensive overview of the subject, focusing on the practical application of human factors. It has been written for safety professionals, engineers and operational disciplines within industry, and those aspiring to these disciplines, who either deal with human factors issues or any aspect of the ‘human element’ in their core role.

The book explains what ‘human factors’ is about and how human factors issues are best managed from a practical perspective. It will help readers develop a greater understanding of the area and how to establish more effective solutions for human factors related issues.

  • Provides comprehensive coverage of the most relevant human factors within this sector, with succinct overviews of each topic
  • Uses case studies and practical examples to illustrate topics and explains the material in a fully accessible, easy to understand style
  • Written by a single team of eleven industry practitioners, drawing on the combined expertise of different human factors specialisms which are rarely comprehensively combined in a single resource

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Author Profiles
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
    1. Reason for the Book
    2. Team of Authors
    3. The Emergence and Development of Human Factors in the Chemical Process and Other Industries
    4. Overview of the Content
    5. Writing Style
  9. Acknowledgment
  10. Section I: Introduction to human factors within the chemical and process industries
    1. Chapter 1. What is human factors?
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. The Work System
      4. Humans within the Work System
      5. Scientific Background
      6. Scientific Approach
      7. Summary: What is Human Factors?
      8. Key Points
      9. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 2. What part does human factors play within chemical and process industries?
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Work Systems in the Chemical and Process Industries
      4. Typical Human Factors Issues
      5. Maturity of Human Factors
      6. Summary: What Part Does Human Factors Play Within the Chemical and Process Industries?
      7. Key Points
      8. References
      9. Further Reading
    3. Chapter 3. Review of common human vulnerabilities and contributions to past accidents
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Current Safety Management Practices
      4. The Plateau in Safety Performance
      5. Learning from Human Failures in Major Accidents
      6. Summary of Key Human Factors Themes within Major Accidents
      7. Final Remarks Regarding Human Performance
      8. Personal Injury
      9. Summary: Review of Common Human Vulnerabilities and Contributions to Past Accidents
      10. Key Points
      11. Reference
      12. Further Reading
    4. Chapter 4. Current regulatory and government focus on human factors
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. The UK and Seveso Directives
      4. Australia
      5. North America
      6. What Does “Good” Look Like for Regulation?
      7. Summary: Current Regulatory and Government Focus on Human Factors
      8. Key Points
      9. References
    5. Chapter 5. Management frameworks for human factors
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Basic Premise of a Human Factors Management Framework
      4. Current Models for Human Factors Management Frameworks
      5. Practical Advice for Implementing a Management Framework
      6. Summary: Management Frameworks for Human Factors
      7. Key Points
      8. References
      9. Further Reading
  11. Section II: Managing human failure
    1. Chapter 6. Human factors in risk management
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Human Reliability Analysis
      4. Qualitative Approaches
      5. Quantitative Approaches
      6. Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
      7. Synergies with Safety Engineering
      8. Other Forms of Risk Management
      9. Summary: Human Factors in Risk Management
      10. Key Points
      11. References
    2. Chapter 7. Reducing human failure
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Overview of Human Error
      4. Overview of Violations and Noncompliance
      5. Key Points
      6. Chapter 7.1. Human error
      7. Models of Human Error
      8. Human Errors in the Context of a Flawed System
      9. Prevalence of Human Error
      10. Performance Shaping Factors
      11. Potential Solutions for Managing Human Error
      12. Summary: Human Error
      13. Key Points
      14. References
      15. Chapter 7.2. Intentional noncompliance
      16. Recognizing Intentional Noncompliance
      17. Tools and Methods for Analyzing Noncompliant Behaviors
      18. Work Compatibility Model
      19. ABC Model
      20. Theory of Planned Behavior
      21. The Links Between Noncompliance and Safety Culture
      22. Risk Homeostasis and Safety Noncompliance
      23. Actions to Reduce Intentional Noncompliances
      24. Summary: Intentional Noncompliance
      25. Key Points
      26. References
      27. References
    3. Chapter 8. Human factors in incident investigation
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. The Investigation Process
      4. Key Stages of an Investigation
      5. Investigation Methods
      6. Including Human Factors Within Existing Investigation Methods
      7. Human Factors Considerations for Investigators
      8. Managing Investigation Capability
      9. Proactive Application of Human Factors Analysis
      10. Summary: Human Factors in Incident Investigation
      11. Key Points
      12. References
  12. Section III: Human factors within design and engineering
    1. Chapter 9. Overview of human factors engineering
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Definitions and Boundaries
      4. Understanding Human Interactions
      5. Human-Centered Design Approach
      6. Practical Application
      7. Summary: Overview of Human Factors Engineering
      8. Key Points
      9. References
    2. Chapter 10. Human factors integration within design/engineering programs
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Cost–Benefits of HFI
      4. Organization of HFI
      5. HFI within the Project Life Cycle
      6. Management of HFI
      7. Technical Work Programs
      8. Assurance Activities
      9. Summary: HFI within Design Engineering Programs
      10. Key Points
      11. References
    3. Chapter 11. Building and control room design
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Human Factors Approach to Control Center Design
      4. Control Building Layout
      5. Control Room Layout
      6. Environmental Design
      7. Summary: Building and Control Room Design
      8. Key Points
      9. Acknowledgment
      10. References
    4. Chapter 12. Workstation, work area, and console design
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Workstation Dimensions
      4. Work Area Space Requirements
      5. Workspace Arrangement—Workstations and Consoles
      6. Working Posture
      7. Seated Workstations
      8. Standing Workstations
      9. Visual Requirements
      10. Additional Information Relevant to Console Design
      11. Vehicle Workstations
      12. Plant Side Work Areas
      13. Key Points
      14. Acknowledgment
      15. References
    5. Chapter 13. Control system interface design
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. An Interdisciplinary Effort
      4. Components of an HMI
      5. Information Display
      6. Controls
      7. Management of Interaction
      8. The Interface as a Control Room Component
      9. Summary: Control System Interface Design
      10. Key Points
      11. References
    6. Chapter 14. Plant and equipment design
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Plant Side Roles and Activities
      4. Instrumentation Design
      5. Valve Design
      6. Design for Maintenance
      7. Workspace Access and Clearance
      8. Equipment Positioning and Layout
      9. Key Points
      10. References
    7. Chapter 15. Human factors in materials handling
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Handling Injuries
      4. Planning and Assessment of Materials Handling
      5. Mechanical Handling
      6. Reducing the Risk of Manual Handling
      7. Summary: Human Factors in Materials Handling
      8. Key Points
      9. References
    8. Chapter 16. Environmental ergonomics
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Measuring Environmental Factors
      4. Thermal Comfort
      5. Lighting
      6. Noise
      7. Vibration
      8. Summary: Environmental Ergonomics
      9. Key Points
      10. References
    9. Chapter 17. Human factors in the design of procedures
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Defining Procedures
      4. Lessons from Past Incidents
      5. Why Procedures Fail
      6. Procedure Development Process
      7. Presentation of Procedures
      8. Practical Tips for Implementing Procedure Improvement Programs
      9. Summary: Human Factors in the Design of Procedures
      10. Key Points
      11. References
      12. Further Reading
  13. Section IV: Understanding and improving organizational performance
    1. Chapter 18. Safety culture and behavior
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Defining Safety Culture
      4. Assessing Safety Culture
      5. Developing and Sustaining Safety Culture
      6. Summary: Safety Culture and Behavior
      7. Key Points
      8. References
    2. Chapter 19. Managing organizational change
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. What is Organizational Change?
      4. Managing the Risks of Organizational Change
      5. Managing Psychological Adjustment
      6. Preventative Measures: Planning for Change
      7. The Role of Communication
      8. Summary of Change Leader Support Actions
      9. Summary: Managing Organizational Change
      10. Key Points
      11. References
    3. Chapter 20. Staffing the operation
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Chapter 20.1. Staffing and workload
      4. Human Capabilities and Limitations
      5. Tools for Assessing Workload and Staffing Arrangements
      6. Possible Solutions to Workload and Staffing Issues
      7. Summary: Staffing and Workload
      8. Key Points
      9. References
      10. Chapter 20.2. Training and competence
      11. Competence Management Systems
      12. Techniques for Defining Competencies
      13. Structured Approach to Training Needs Analysis
      14. Types of Learning
      15. Summary: Training and Competence
      16. Key Points
      17. References
      18. Chapter 20.3. Effective supervision
      19. The Supervisory Role
      20. Challenges Faced by Supervisors
      21. Selecting Effective Supervisors
      22. Developing Effective Supervisors
      23. Assessing Supervisor Safety Performance
      24. The Role of Managers in Supporting Supervisors
      25. Summary: Effective Supervision
      26. Key Points
      27. References
      28. Further Reading
    4. Chapter 21. Safety critical communication
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. What are Safety Critical Communications?
      4. A Model of Communication
      5. Barriers to Communication
      6. System Failures
      7. Message Failures—Sender Errors
      8. Reception Failures—Receiver Errors
      9. Potential Solutions for Managing Safety Critical Communications
      10. Summary: Safety Critical Communications
      11. Key Points
      12. References
    5. Chapter 22. Managing fatigue
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Technical Terms
      4. Managing Fatigue
      5. Fatigue “Risk” Management
      6. Fatigue Likelihood Analysis
      7. Fatigue Proofing
      8. Monitoring and Review
      9. Education and Awareness
      10. Summary: Managing Fatigue
      11. Key Points
      12. References
    6. Chapter 23. Managing performance under pressure
      1. Abstract
      2. List of Abbreviations
      3. Technical Terms
      4. The Body Under Duress
      5. Managing Pressure at Work: A Comprehensive Approach
      6. From Managing Stress to Promoting Resilience
      7. Stress, Resilience, and the Individual
      8. Summary: Managing Performance Under Pressure
      9. Key Points
      10. References
      11. Further Reading
  14. Index