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Human Fatigue Risk Management

Book Description

Human Fatigue Risk Management: Improving Safety in the Chemical Processing Industry teaches users everything they need to know to mitigate the risk of fatigued workers in a plant or refinery. As human fatigue has been directly linked to several major disasters, the book explores the API RP 755 guidelines that were released to reduce these types of incidents. This book will help users follow API RP 755 and/or implement a fatigue risk management system in their organization.

Susan Murray, a recognized expert in the field of sleep deprivation and its relation to high hazard industries, has written this book to be useful for HSE managers, plant and project managers, occupational safety professionals, and engineers and managers in the chemical processing industry. As scheduling of shifts is an important factor in reducing fatigue and accident rates, users will learn the benefits of more frequent staff rotation and how to implement an ideal scheduling plan.

The book goes beyond API RP 755, offering more detailed understanding of why certain measures for managing fatigue are beneficial to a company, including examples of how theory can be put into practice. It is a simple, digestible book for managers who are interested in addressing human factor issues at their workplace in order to raise safety standards.

  • Covers sleep, sleep disorders, and the consequences of fatigue as related to high-hazard industries
  • Helps improve safety standards at the plant level
  • Provides information on how to comply with API RP 755 and related OSHA 29CFR1910 articles
  • Relates fatigue and human performance to accidents, helping readers make a case for implementing a human fatigue risk management policy, which, in turn, prevents loss of property and life

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. About the Authors
  6. Foreword
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Chapter 1: The consequences of fatigue in the process industries
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1. BP Texas City
    3. 1.2. Human factors and the BP Texas City accident
    4. 1.3. A “Wake-up” call for the processing industry
  9. Chapter 2: Basics of sleep biology
    1. Abstract
    2. 2.1. What is sleep?
    3. 2.2. Identifying sleep
    4. 2.3. What is sleep good for?
    5. 2.4. Consequences of sleep deprivation
    6. 2.5. Benefits of sleep
  10. Chapter 3: Circadian rhythms and sleep–circadian interactions
    1. Abstract
    2. 3.1. Circadian rhythms
    3. 3.2. Interaction between sleepiness and circadian rhythms
  11. Chapter 4: Sleep hygiene recommendations
    1. Abstract
    2. 4.1. Make sleep a priority
    3. 4.2. Light
    4. 4.3. Consistent bedtime
    5. 4.4. Bedtime routine
    6. 4.5. Noise
    7. 4.6. Temperature
    8. 4.7. Stimulants
    9. 4.8. Sleeping environment
    10. 4.9. Pain
    11. 4.10. Diet
    12. 4.11. Naps
    13. 4.12. Body posture
    14. 4.13. Exercise
    15. 4.14. Age
  12. Chapter 5: Sleep disorders
    1. Abstract
    2. 5.1. Sleep apnea
    3. 5.2. Insomnia
    4. 5.3. Narcolepsy
    5. 5.4. Restless leg syndrome (RLS)/Willis–Ekbom disease (WED)
    6. 5.5. Shift work disorder
    7. 5.6. Sleep–wake phase disorders
    8. 5.7. Parasomnias
    9. 5.8. Fatal familial insomnia
    10. 5.9. Hypersomnias
  13. Chapter 6: Fatigue and human performance
    1. Abstract
    2. 6.1. Fatigue and human error
    3. 6.2. Fatigue and hand-eye coordination
    4. 6.3. Fatigue and mood
    5. 6.4. Fatigue and memory
    6. 6.5. Fatigue and reaction time
    7. 6.6. Fatigue and attention
    8. 6.7. Fatigue and cognitive tunneling
    9. 6.8. Fatigue and decision making
    10. 6.9. Fatigue and working with others
    11. 6.10. Fatigue and marital life
  14. Chapter 7: Fatigue and accidents
    1. Abstract
    2. 7.1. Bhopal—fatigue and poor abnormal situation response
    3. 7.2. American Airlines 1420—fatigue and decline in situation awareness
    4. 7.3. NASA space shuttle—fatigue and decision making
    5. 7.4. Exxon Valdez—fatigue and work schedules
    6. 7.5. Three Mile Island and cognitive tunneling
    7. 7.6. Metro-North train derailment fatigue caused by circadian rhythms and sleep apnea
    8. 7.7. Fatigue’s role in accidents
  15. Chapter 8: Fatigue-related regulations and guidelines
    1. Abstract
    2. 8.1. OSHA and fatigue risk
    3. 8.2. NIOSH sleep-related publications
    4. 8.3. UK and EU regulations
    5. 8.4. Transportation fatigue regulations
    6. 8.5. Healthcare fatigue regulations
    7. 8.6. Conclusions
  16. Chapter 9: Fatigue counter measures
    1. Abstract
    2. 9.1. Schedule
    3. 9.2. Food and drink
    4. 9.3. A sleep-friendly bedroom
    5. 9.4. Lighting
    6. 9.5. Getting to sleep or back to sleep
    7. 9.6. Conclusions
  17. Chapter 10: Work shifts
    1. Abstract
    2. 10.1. Shift work
    3. 10.2. Work-shift schedule design
    4. 10.3. Managing work-shift scheduling
    5. 10.4. Evaluating work shifts using the HSE fatigue index
    6. 10.5. An example of health and safety executive’s fatigue index
  18. Chapter 11: Work environment
    1. Abstract
    2. 11.1. Introduction
    3. 11.2. Lighting
    4. 11.3. Temperature
    5. 11.4. Noise
    6. 11.5. Vibration
    7. 11.6. Color
  19. Chapter 12: Work task design
    1. Abstract
    2. 12.1. Introduction to work design
    3. 12.2. Work stress
    4. 12.3. Administrative solutions for work design issues
    5. 12.4. Workplace exercise
    6. 12.5. Engineering solutions for work design issues
    7. 12.6. Error proofing
    8. 12.7. Human reliability analysis
  20. Chapter 13: Employee training
    1. Abstract
    2. 13.1. Introduction
    3. 13.2. Addressing FRMS training reluctance
    4. 13.3. Training topics
    5. 13.4. Ways to Engage Trainees
    6. 13.5. Training for supervisors
    7. 13.6. Freely available FRMS training materials
    8. 13.7. FRMS training assessment
  21. Chapter 14: Naps
    1. Abstract
    2. 14.1. Perceptions of napping
    3. 14.2. Is sleepiness a problem at work?
    4. 14.3. Benefits of naps
    5. 14.4. Strategic napping
    6. 14.5. Napping recommendations for the workplace and for shiftwork
    7. 14.6. Nap facilities
  22. Chapter 15: Compounds that alter sleep and wakefulness
    1. Abstract
    2. 15.1. Over-the-counter substances
    3. 15.2. Prescription medications meant to alter sleep and sleepiness
    4. 15.3. Common prescriptions that can alter sleep regulation
  23. Chapter 16: Creating a fatigue risk management system (FRMS)
    1. Abstract
    2. 16.1. Call for fatigue risk management systems (FRMS)
    3. 16.2. Purpose of an FRMS
    4. 16.3. Roles and responsibilities
    5. 16.4. FRMS implementation
    6. 16.5. Training
    7. 16.6. Hours of service limits
    8. 16.7. FRMS resources
    9. 16.8. Assessing an FRMS
    10. 16.9. FRMS quality assurance questions
  24. Chapter 17: Accident investigation
    1. Abstract
    2. 17.1. Investigating accidents, incidents, and near misses
    3. 17.2. Considering human factors in an investigation
    4. 17.3. Fatigue as a contributing factor in accidents
    5. 17.4. Sample NTSB fatigue-related accident investigation
    6. 17.5. BP Texas City CSB investigation
  25. Index