v
Contents
About the Authors .............................................................................................xvii
Preface ................................................................................................................... xix
1 Introduction to Network Robot Approach for Human–Robot
Interaction ........................................................................................................1
1.1 From Navigation and Manipulation to Human–Robot
Introduction ...........................................................................................1
1.2 Interactive Robots..................................................................................5
1.3 Network Robots .....................................................................................8
2 Field Tests—Observing People’s Reaction ................................................9
2.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................9
2.2 Interactive Humanoid Robots for a Science Museum ................... 10
Masahiro Shiomi, Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro, and
Norihiro Hagita
Abstract .................................................................................................10
2.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................11
2.2.2 Related Works .........................................................................12
2.2.3 The Osaka Science Museum ................................................13
2.2.3.1 General Settings ..................................................... 13
2.2.3.2 Our Experimental Settings ................................... 13
2.2.4 System Conguration ............................................................ 14
2.2.4.1 Database...................................................................15
2.2.4.2 Embedded Ubiquitous Sensors in an
Environment ...........................................................15
2.2.4.3 Humanoid Robots .................................................. 16
2.2.5 Robot Behavior .......................................................................18
2.2.5.1 Locomotive Robot .................................................. 18
2.2.5.2 Robots That Talk with Each Other ....................... 18
2.2.5.3 A Robot Saying Goodbye ......................................23
2.2.6 Experiment ..............................................................................23
2.2.6.1 A 2-Month Exhibition ............................................23
2.2.6.2 Results of the 2-Month Experiment .....................23
2.2.6.3 Experiments on the Behavior of Robots ..............26
2.2.6.4 Results of Robots’ Behavior ..................................27
2.2.7 Discussion and Conclusion ..................................................28
2.2.7.1 Contributions ..........................................................28
2.2.7.2 A Perspective on Autonomy for a
Communication Robot in Daily Life ...................28
Acknowledgments .........................................................................................30
References .......................................................................................................30
vi Contents
2.3 Humanoid Robots as a Passive-Social Medium—
A Field Experiment at a Train Station ..............................................31
Kotaro Hayashi, Daisuke Sakamoto, TakayukiKanda,
MasahiroShiomi, Satoshi Koizumi, Hiroshi Ishiguro,
TsukasaOgasawara, and Norihiro Hagita
Abstract .................................................................................................31
2.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................32
2.3.2 Multi-robot Communication System ..................................34
2.3.2.1 Design Policy ..........................................................35
2.3.2.2 Humanoid Robot ....................................................35
2.3.2.3 Sensor .......................................................................36
2.3.2.4 Scenario-Controlling System ................................36
2.3.2.5 Example of a Script ................................................37
2.3.3 Experiment ..............................................................................38
2.3.3.1 Method .....................................................................38
2.3.3.2 Participants ..............................................................38
2.3.3.3 Conditions ...............................................................39
2.3.3.4 Content of Scenarios ..............................................41
2.3.3.5 Measurement ..........................................................41
2.3.3.6 Hypotheses ..............................................................45
2.3.3.7 Results ......................................................................45
2.3.4 Overview .................................................................................48
2.3.4.1 Contribution to HRI Research ..............................48
2.3.4.2 Contribution to Robot Design as a Medium ......48
2.3.4.3 Effects of Robots as Passive-Social Medium ......49
2.3.4.4 Novelty Effect .........................................................49
2.3.4.5 Limitations ..............................................................50
2.3.5 Conclusion ..............................................................................50
Acknowledgments ......................................................................................... 51
References .......................................................................................................51
2.4 An Affective Guide Robot in a Shopping Mall ...............................52
Takayuki Kanda, Masahiro Shiomi, Zenta Miyashita,
HiroshiIshiguro, and Norihiro Hagita
Abstract .................................................................................................52
2.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................53
2.4.2 Design ......................................................................................54
2.4.3 Contemplating Robot Roles ..................................................54
2.4.3.1 Role 1: Guiding .......................................................55
2.4.3.2 Role 2: Building Rapport .......................................56
2.4.3.3 Role 3: Advertisements ..........................................56
2.4.4 System Design ........................................................................56
2.4.5 Behavior Design .....................................................................58
2.4.5.1 General Design .......................................................58
2.4.5.2 Guiding Behavior ...................................................58
viiContents
2.4.5.3 Building Rapport Behavior ...................................59
2.4.5.4 Behavior for Advertisements ................................59
2.4.6 System Conguration ............................................................60
2.4.7 Autonomous System ..............................................................60
2.4.7.1 Robovie ....................................................................60
2.4.7.2 Person Identication .............................................. 61
2.4.7.3 Position Estimation ................................................62
2.4.7.4 Behavior and Episode Rules .................................62
2.4.7.5 Nonverbal Behaviors .............................................63
2.4.8 Operator’s Roles .....................................................................63
2.4.8.1 Substitute of Speech Recognition.........................64
2.4.8.2 Supervisor of Behavior Selector ...........................64
2.4.8.3 Knowledge Provider ..............................................64
2.4.9 Conversational Fillers ............................................................65
2.4.10 Field Trial ................................................................................65
2.4.10.1 Procedure ................................................................65
2.4.11 Results .....................................................................................65
2.4.11.1 Overall Transition of Interactions ........................65
2.4.11.2 Perception of Participants .....................................66
2.4.11.3 Comparison with an Information Display .........69
2.4.11.4 Integrated Analysis ................................................70
2.4.12 Discussion ...............................................................................71
2.4.12.1 Degree of Operator Involvement .........................71
2.4.13 Conclusion ..............................................................................72
Acknowledgments .........................................................................................73
References .......................................................................................................73
3 Users’ Attitude and Expectations ..............................................................75
3.1 Introduction .........................................................................................75
Reference ......................................................................................................... 76
3.2 Is Interaction with Teleoperated Robots Less Enjoyable? .............76
Fumitaka Yamaoka, Takayuki Kanda, HiroshiIshiguro, and
Norihiro Hagita
Abstract .................................................................................................76
3.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................77
3.2.2 Experimental System .............................................................77
3.2.3 Experiment ..............................................................................78
3.2.3.1 Participants and Environment .............................80
3.2.3.2 Procedure ................................................................80
3.2.3.3 Conditions ...............................................................82
3.2.3.4 Measures ..................................................................83
3.2.4 Results .....................................................................................83
3.2.4.1 Does Prior Knowledge of Operator’s
Presence Vary Impressions? .................................83
viii Contents
3.2.4.2 Participants Affected by Prior Knowledge
of Operator’s Presence ...........................................84
3.2.5 Conclusion ..............................................................................87
Acknowledgments .........................................................................................87
References .......................................................................................................87
3.3 Hesitancy in Interacting with Robots—Anxiety and
Negative Attitudes ..............................................................................88
Tatsuya Nomura, Takayuki Kanda, Tomohiro Suzuki, and
Kensuke Kato
Abstract .................................................................................................88
3.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................89
3.3.2 Psychological Scales for Human–Robot Interaction .........89
3.3.2.1 Background: Attitudes and Anxiety ...................90
3.3.2.2 Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale
(NARS) .....................................................................90
3.3.2.3 Robot Anxiety Scale (RAS) ...................................90
3.3.3 Experiment ..............................................................................91
3.3.3.1 Participants and Settings ......................................91
3.3.3.2 Procedures ............................................................... 91
3.3.3.3 Measurement ..........................................................92
3.3.4 Results .....................................................................................93
3.3.4.1 Measurement Result ..............................................93
3.3.4.2 Prediction of Communication Avoidance
Behavior from Anxiety and Negative
Attitudes ..................................................................96
3.3.5 Conclusion ..............................................................................97
Acknowledgments .........................................................................................98
References .......................................................................................................98
Appendix—Items in the NARS [15] and RAS [16]. ..................................100
4 Modeling Natural Behaviors for Human-Like Interaction
withRobots .................................................................................................. 101
4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 101
References ..................................................................................................... 103
4.2 A Model of Natural Deictic Interaction ......................................... 104
Osamu Sugiyama, Takayuki Kanda, Michita Imai,
HiroshiIshiguro, and Norihiro Hagita
4.2.1 Introduction ..........................................................................104
4.2.2 Related Works ....................................................................... 105
4.2.3 Model of Deictic interaction ...............................................105
4.2.4 Development of a Communication Robot Capable of
Natural Deictic Interaction .................................................108
4.2.5 Evaluation Experiment ........................................................ 113
4.2.5.1 Method ................................................................... 113

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