O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Image Processing

Book Description

This graduate textbook explains image geometry, and elaborates on image enhancement in spatial and frequency domain, unconstrained and constrained restoration and restoration from projection, and discusses various coding technologies such as predictive coding and transform coding. Rich in examples and exercises, it prepares electrical engineering and computer science students for further studies on image analysis and understanding.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Contents
  6. 1 Introduction to Image Processing
    1. 1.1 Basic Concepts of Images
      1. 1.1.1 Images and Digital Images
      2. 1.1.2 Matrix and Vector Representation
      3. 1.1.3 Image Display
      4. 1.1.4 High Dimensional Images
    2. 1.2 Image Engineering
      1. 1.2.1 Image Techniques and Image Engineering
      2. 1.2.2 Three Levels of Image Engineering
      3. 1.2.3 Related Disciplines and Fields
      4. 1.2.4 A Survey on Image Engineering
    3. 1.3 Image Processing System
      1. 1.3.1 A Block Diagram of System
      2. 1.3.2 Image Acquisition Equipment
      3. 1.3.3 Image Display and Printing
      4. 1.3.4 Image Storage
      5. 1.3.5 Image Processing
    4. 1.4 Overview of the Book
    5. 1.5 Problems and Questions
    6. 1.6 Further Reading
  7. 2 Image Acquisition
    1. 2.1 Spatial Relationship in Image Formation
      1. 2.1.1 Coordinate System
      2. 2.1.2 Perspective Transformations
      3. 2.1.3 Approximate Projection Modes
      4. 2.1.4 A General Camera Model
      5. 2.1.5 Common Imaging Model
    2. 2.2 Stereo Imaging
      1. 2.2.1 Parallel Horizontal Model
      2. 2.2.2 Focused Horizontal Model
      3. 2.2.3 Axis Model
    3. 2.3 Image Brightness
      1. 2.3.1 Luminosity
      2. 2.3.2 A Model of Image Brightness
    4. 2.4 Sampling and Quantization
      1. 2.4.1 Spatial Resolution and Amplitude Resolution
      2. 2.4.2 Image Quality Related to Sampling and Quantization
      3. 2.4.3 Sampling Considerations
    5. 2.5 Problems and Questions
    6. 2.6 Further Reading
  8. 3 Image Enhancement
    1. 3.1 Image Operations
      1. 3.1.1 Arithmetic and Logical Operations
      2. 3.1.2 Applications of Image Operations
    2. 3.2 Direct Gray-Level Mapping
      1. 3.2.1 Gray-Level Mapping
      2. 3.2.2 Typical Examples of Mapping Functions
    3. 3.3 Histogram Transformation
      1. 3.3.1 Histogram Equalization
      2. 3.3.2 Histogram Specification
    4. 3.4 Frequency Filtering
      1. 3.4.1 Low-Pass Filtering
      2. 3.4.2 High-Pass Filtering
    5. 3.5 Linear Spatial Filters
      1. 3.5.1 Technique Classification and Principles
      2. 3.5.2 Linear Smoothing Filters
    6. 3.6 NonLinear Spatial Filters
      1. 3.6.1 Median Filters
      2. 3.6.2 Order-Statistic Filters
    7. 3.7 Problems and Questions
    8. 3.8 Further Reading
  9. 4 Image Restoration
    1. 4.1 Degradation and Noise
      1. 4.1.1 Image Degradation
      2. 4.1.2 Noise and Representation
    2. 4.2 Degradation Model and Restoration Computation
      1. 4.2.1 Degradation Model
      2. 4.2.2 Computation of the Degradation Model
      3. 4.2.3 Diagonalization
    3. 4.3 Techniques for Unconstrained Restoration
      1. 4.3.1 Unconstrained Restoration
      2. 4.3.2 Removal of Blur Caused by Uniform Linear Motion
    4. 4.4 Techniques for Constrained Restoration
      1. 4.4.1 Constrained Restoration
      2. 4.4.2 Wiener Filter
      3. 4.4.3 Constrained Least Square Restoration
    5. 4.5 Interactive Restoration
    6. 4.6 Image Repairing
      1. 4.6.1 The Principle of Image Repairing
      2. 4.6.2 Image Inpainting with Total Variational Model
      3. 4.6.3 Image Completion with Sample-Based Approach
    7. 4.7 Problems and Questions
    8. 4.8 Further Reading
  10. 5 Image Reconstruction from Projections
    1. 5.1 Modes and Principles
      1. 5.1.1 Various Modes of Reconstruction from Projections
      2. 5.1.2 The Principle of Reconstruction from Projections
    2. 5.2 Reconstruction by Fourier Inversion
      1. 5.2.1 Fundamentals of Fourier Inversion
      2. 5.2.2 Reconstruction Formulas of the Fourier Inverse Transform
      3. 5.2.3 Phantom Reconstruction
    3. 5.3 Convolution and Back-Projection
      1. 5.3.1 Convolution Back-Projection
      2. 5.3.2 Filter of the Back-Projections
      3. 5.3.3 Back-Projection of the Filtered Projections
    4. 5.4 Algebraic Reconstruction
      1. 5.4.1 Reconstruction Model
      2. 5.4.2 Algebraic Reconstruction Technique
      3. 5.4.3 Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique
      4. 5.4.4 Some Characteristics of ART
    5. 5.5 Combined Reconstruction
    6. 5.6 Problems and Questions
    7. 5.7 Further Reading
  11. 6 Image Coding
    1. 6.1 Fundamentals
      1. 6.1.1 Data Redundancy
      2. 6.1.2 Image Quality and Judgment
    2. 6.2 Variable-Length Coding
      1. 6.2.1 Huffman Coding
      2. 6.2.2 Suboptimal Huffman Coding
      3. 6.2.3 Shannon-Fano Coding
      4. 6.2.4 Arithmetic Coding
    3. 6.3 Bit-Plane Coding
      1. 6.3.1 Bit-Plane Decomposition
      2. 6.3.2 Bit-Plane Coding
    4. 6.4 Predictive Coding
      1. 6.4.1 Lossless Predictive Coding
      2. 6.4.2 Lossy Predictive Coding
    5. 6.5 Transform Coding
      1. 6.5.1 Transform Coding Systems
      2. 6.5.2 Sub-Image Size Selection
      3. 6.5.3 Transform Selection
      4. 6.5.4 Bit Allocation
      5. 6.5.5 Wavelet Transform Coding
      6. 6.5.6 Lifting-Based Wavelet Coding
    6. 6.6 Problems and Questions
    7. 6.7 Further Reading
  12. 7 Image Watermarking
    1. 7.1 Principles and Characteristics
      1. 7.1.1 Embedding and Detection of Watermarks
      2. 7.1.2 Characteristics of Watermarks
      3. 7.1.3 Classification of Watermarks
    2. 7.2 Image Watermarking in DCT Domain
      1. 7.2.1 Algorithm for Meaningless Watermark
      2. 7.2.2 Algorithm for Meaningful Watermark
    3. 7.3 Image Watermarking in DWT Domain
      1. 7.3.1 Human Visual Properties
      2. 7.3.2 Algorithm for Wavelet Watermark
    4. 7.4 Performance Evaluation of Watermarking
      1. 7.4.1 Distortion Metrics
      2. 7.4.2 Benchmarking and Attack
      3. 7.4.3 Examples of Watermark Performance Test
    5. 7.5 Information Hiding
      1. 7.5.1 Watermarking and Information Hiding
      2. 7.5.2 Images Hiding Based on Iterative Blending
    6. 7.6 Problems and Questions
    7. 7.7 Further Reading
  13. 8 Color Image Processing
    1. 8.1 Color Vision and Chromaticity Diagram
      1. 8.1.1 Color Vision Fundamentals
      2. 8.1.2 Three Primary Colors and Color Matching
      3. 8.1.3 Chroma and Chromaticity Diagram
    2. 8.2 Color Models
      1. 8.2.1 Hardware-Orientated Models
      2. 8.2.2 Perception-Orientated Models
    3. 8.3 Pseudo-Color Enhancement
      1. 8.3.1 Intensity Slicing
      2. 8.3.2 Gray Level to Color Transformations
      3. 8.3.3 Frequency Domain Filtering
    4. 8.4 Full-Color Enhancement
      1. 8.4.1 Strategy and Principles
      2. 8.4.2 Single Component Mapping
      3. 8.4.3 Full-Color Enhancements
    5. 8.5 Problems and Questions
    6. 8.6 Further Reading
  14. Answers to Selected Problems and Questions
  15. References
  16. Index