1 There are, however, exceptions to the equality principle based on reasonable conditions admitted by the Constitution, such as positive discrimination and religious freedom.
2 Dhams, four sacred Hindu places of pilgrimage and congregation, are located in the four corners of India—North, South, East and West — signifying the religious, ideological and emotional unity of India.
3 V. P Verma, Modern Indian Political Thought (Agra: Lakshmi Narain Pub., 1987), pp. 202–80; M. K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Pub. House, 1938); Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1981).
4 ‘Rudimentary’ in the sense of a simple, food-gathering and agrarian society organized on a personalized, patriarchal ...