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Industrial Applications of Renewable Plastics

Book Description

Industrial Applications of Renewable Plastics: Environmental, Technological, and Economic Advances provides practical information to help engineers and materials scientists deploy renewable plastics in the plastics market. It explores the uses, possibilities, and problems of renewable plastics and composites to assist in material selection and rejection. The designer’s main problems are examined, along with basic reminders that deal with structures and processing methods that can help those who are generally familiar with metals understand the unique properties of plastic materials.

The book offers a candid overview of main issues, including conservation of fossil resources, geopolitical considerations, greenhouse effects, competition with food crops, deforestation, pollution, and disposal of renewable plastics. In addition, an overview of some tools related to sustainability (Life cycle assessments, CO2 emissions, carbon footprint, and more) is provided.

The book is an essential resource for engineers and materials scientists involved in material selection, design, manufacturing, molding, fabrication, and other links in the supply chain of plastics. The material contained is of great relevance to many major industries, including automotive and transport, packaging, aeronautics, shipbuilding, industrial and military equipment, electrical and electronics, energy, and more.

  • Provides key, enabling information for engineers and materials scientists looking to increase the use of renewable plastic materials in their work
  • Presents practical guidance to assist in materials selection, processing methods, and applications development, particularly for designers more familiar with other materials, such as metals
  • Includes a candid discussion of the pros and cons of using renewable plastics, considering the technical, economic, legal, and environmental aspects

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Series Page
  5. Copyright
  6. Disclaimer
  7. Preface
  8. Acronyms and Abbreviations
  9. 1. Outline of the Actual Situation of Plastics Compared to Conventional Materials
    1. 1.1. Polymers: The Industrial and Economic Reality Compared to Traditional Materials
    2. 1.2. What Are Thermoplastics, Thermoplastic Elastomer, Thermosets, Composites, and Hybrids?
    3. 1.3. Plastics: An Answer to the Designer’s Main Problems
    4. 1.4. Outline of the Technical and Economic Possibilities of Processing
    5. 1.5. The Final Material/Process/Cost Compromise
    6. 1.6. Useful Source Examples for Initiation of In-Depth Studies
    7. Further Reading
  10. 2. Genesis of Renewable Plastics and Integration in the Plastics Stream
    1. 2.1. Inescapable Strengthening of Environmental Concerns
    2. 2.2. Development of Bioplastics From Renewable Sources
    3. 2.3. Pros and Cons of Renewable and Oil-Sourced Plastics
    4. 2.4. Brief Remarks on Processing and Recycling of Renewable Plastics
    5. 2.5. Pay Close Attention to Carbon Biobased Content, Testing and Certification
    6. 2.6. List of Commercial Offer Examples
    7. 2.7. Examples of Useful Sources for Initiation of In-Depth Studies
    8. Further Reading
  11. 3. Recycling: The First Source of Renewable Plastics
    1. 3.1. Outline
    2. 3.2. Recycling Methods
    3. 3.3. Sectorial Routes for Recycling
    4. 3.4. CO2 Emission, Greenhouse Effect, and Carbon Footprint
    5. 3.5. Recyclate Property Examples
    6. 3.6. Recycled Materials Often Bring Also Cost and Pollution Savings
    7. 3.7. Some Limitations to Recycled Material Use
    8. Further Reading
  12. 4. Renewable Plastics Derived From Natural Polymers
    1. 4.1. Brief Inventory of Renewable Polymers
    2. 4.2. Ready-to-Use Thermoplastic Blends and Derivatives of Starch
    3. 4.3. Polylactic Acid
    4. 4.4. Cellulose Derivatives
    5. 4.5. Various Aliphatic Polyesters
    6. 4.6. Liquid Wood Based on Lignin—Arboform by Tecnaro
    7. 4.7. Self-Reinforced Composite Produced From Cereals: VEGEMAT® by Vegeplast
    8. Further Reading
    9. Websites
  13. 5. Biobricks: The Breakthrough of Drop-In Solutions
    1. 5.1. A Broad Panel of Biomonomers and Bioblocks “Similar” to Fossil Molecules
    2. 5.2. Brief Inventory of Renewable Polymers
    3. 5.3. Polyethylene
    4. 5.4. Renewable Thermoplastic Polyesters: Polyethylene Terephthalate, Polybutylene Terephthalate, Polyethylene Furanoate
    5. 5.5. Renewable Polyamides
    6. 5.6. Renewable Polyurethanes
    7. 5.7. Renewable Unsaturated Polyesters
    8. 5.8. Renewable Acrylics
    9. 5.9. Renewable Phenol Formaldehyde Resins
    10. 5.10. Renewable Epoxy Resins
    11. 5.11. Renewable Polycarbonate
    12. 5.12. Renewable Polypropylene: A Promising Way
    13. 5.13. Renewable Polyvinyl Chloride
    14. 5.14. Thermosetting Cyanate Ester Resins
    15. 5.15. Thermosetting Furan Resins
    16. 5.16. Drying Vegetable Oils
    17. Further Reading
  14. 6. Renewable Alloys, Compounds, Composites, and Additives
    1. 6.1. Miscellaneous Proprietary Alloys and Compounds Primarily Based on Renewable Polymers
    2. 6.2. Hybrid Solutions: Proprietary Alloys and Compounds Based on Renewable and Fossil Polymers
    3. 6.3. Natural Fibers for Renewable Reinforcements
    4. 6.4. Renewable Composites Combining Natural Fibers and Renewable Matrices
    5. 6.5. Hybrid Composites Combining Renewable and Fossil Materials
    6. 6.6. Renewable Plasticizers
    7. 6.7. Other Additives From Renewable Resources
    8. Further Reading
  15. 7. Environmental Impact of Renewable Plastics: Pros and Cons, Indicators
    1. 7.1. Pros and Cons Overview
    2. 7.2. Overview of Some Tools Related to Sustainability: Environmental Indicators and Benchmarks
    3. 7.3. Comparison of Environmental Impact of Renewable and Fossil Polymer Production
    4. 7.4. Environmental Impact of Fibers
    5. 7.5. Environmental Impact of Processing
    6. 7.6. Environmental Impact of End Product Type
    7. 7.7. Environmental Impact of Disposal
    8. Further Reading
  16. 8. Application Examples
    1. 8.1. Packaging
    2. 8.2. Automotive and Transportation
    3. 8.3. Building and Construction: The Major Sector for Wood Plastic Composite
    4. 8.4. Application Examples Concerning Agriculture, Horticulture, Gardening
    5. 8.5. Application Examples Concerning Consumer Goods
    6. 8.6. Other Application Examples
    7. 8.7. Examples of Solutions Getting Closer to Closed Loops and Circular Economy
    8. Further Reading
  17. 9. Renewable Plastics and Ingredients: Economic Overview
    1. 9.1. Renewable Plastics Consumption and Capacity Forecasts
    2. 9.2. Bioadditives Consumption
    3. 9.3. Wood Plastic Composite and Natural Fiber Composite Market
    4. 9.4. Biomaterial Costs
    5. 9.5. Bioplastics Applications: Survey of Six Top Markets
    6. Further Reading
  18. 10. Future Prospects
    1. 10.1. Price Expectations
    2. 10.2. Strengthening of Laws and Regulations: Repressive, Dissuasive, or Incentive Effect
    3. 10.3. Improvement of Recycling
    4. 10.4. Diversification of Renewable Plastic Resources
    5. 10.5. The Recent Past and Immediate Future Seen Through Patents
    6. 10.6. The Recent Past and Immediate Future Seen Through Funded Research
    7. 10.7. The Immediate Future Seen Through Recent Awards
    8. Further Reading
  19. Conclusion
  20. Glossary
  21. Index