Chapter 4

Water

Abstract

In this chapter the use of water as a raw material for the production of salts, hydrogen, and oxygen, or even Cl2, HCl, and Na, is evaluated. Therefore water desalination technologies (ie, evaporation or membranes) are analyzed and designed based on transport phenomena and/or the thermodynamics of the mixtures. Electrolytic cell operation is also evaluated, not only for water electrolysis, but also for Cl2 production out of NaCl. Electrochemical principles are used in the analysis. Different renewable power sources can be selected depending on the design criteria. Furthermore, Leblanc and Solvay processes for the production of Na2CO3 from NaCl are described and analyzed based on physico–chemical principles, mass, and energy ...

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