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Industrial Power Engineering Handbook

Book Description

Never before has so much ground been covered in a single volume reference source. This five-part work is sure to be of great value to students, technicians and practicing engineers as well as equipment designers and manufacturers, and should become their one-stop shop for all information needs in this subject area.

This book will be of interest to those working with: Static Drives, Static Controls of Electric Motors, Speed Control of Electric Motors, Soft Starting, Fluid Coupling, Wind Mills, Generators, Painting procedures, Effluent treatment, Electrostatic Painting, Liquid Painting, Instrument Transformers, Core Balanced CTs, CTs, VTs, Current Transformers, Voltage Transformers, Earthquake engineering, Seismic testing, Seismic effects, Cabling, Circuit Breakers, Switching Surges, Insulation Coordination, Surge Protection, Lightning, Over-voltages, Ground Fault Protections, Earthing, Earth fault Protection, Shunt Capacitors, Reactive control, Bus Systems, Bus Duct, & Rising mains

*A 5-part guide to all aspects of electrical power engineering

*Uniquely comprehensive coverage of all subjects associated with power engineering

*A one-stop reference resource for power drives, their controls, power transfer and distribution, reactive controls, protection (including over voltage and surge protection), maintenance and testing electrical engineering

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. NEWNES POWER ENGINEERING SERIES
  5. Dedication
  6. Copyright
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Technical Support
  10. Introduction
    1. Part I Selection, testing, controls and protection of electric motors
    2. Part II Switchgear assemblies and captive (emergency) power generation (Including instrument transformers and cable selection)
    3. Part III Voltage surges, overvoltages and grounding practices (including causes, effects and remedies and theory of overvoltages, ground fault protection schemes and grounding practices)
    4. Part IV Power capacitors: power factor improvement and system voltage regulation: application of shunt and series capacitors
    5. Part V Bus systems in including metal-enclosed non-isolated and isolated phase bus systems
  11. Part I: Selection, Testing, Controls and Protection of Electric Motors
    1. Chapter 1: Theory, Performance and Constructional Features of Induction Motors
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Brief theory of the operation of a polyphase motor
      3. 1.3 Motor output and torque
      4. 1.4 Motor ratings and frame sizes
      5. 1.5 Preferred ratings at different voltages
      6. 1.6 Influence of service conditions on motor performance
      7. 1.7 No-load performance
      8. 1.8 Effect of loading on motor performance
      9. 1.9 Effect of steel of laminations on core losses
      10. 1.10 Circle diagram
      11. 1.11 Types of induction motors
      12. 1.12 Mounting of motors
      13. 1.13 Enclosures
      14. 1.14 Weatherproof motors (WP) (degree of protection IP 55)
      15. 1.15 Degree of protection
      16. 1.16 Cooling systems in large motors
      17. 1.17 Single-phase motors
      18. 1.18 Theory of operation
      19. List of formulae used
    2. Chapter 2: Motor Torque, Load Torque and Selection of Motors
      1. 2.1 Motor speed–torque curve
      2. 2.2 NEMA rotor designs
      3. 2.3 Special designs of rotors
      4. 2.4 Effect of starting current on torque
      5. 2.5 Load torque or opposing torque
      6. 2.6 Selection of motors
      7. 2.7 Time of start-up and its effect on motor performance
      8. 2.8 Thermal withstand time
      9. List of formulae used
    3. Chapter 3: Duties of Induction Motors
      1. 3.1 Duty cycles
      2. 3.2 Continuous duty (CMR) (S1)
      3. 3.3 Periodic duties
      4. 3.4 Factor of inertia (FI)
      5. 3.5 Heating and cooling characteristic curves
      6. 3.6 Drawing the thermal curves
      7. 3.7 Rating of short-time motors
      8. 3.8 Equivalent output of short-time duties
      9. 3.9 Shock loading and use of a flywheel
      10. List of formulae used
    4. Chapter 4: Starting of Squirrel Cage Induction Motors
      1. 4.1 Direct on-line starting (DOL)
      2. 4.2 Reduced voltage starting
      3. List of formulae used
    5. Chapter 5: Starting and Control of Slip-ring Induction Motors
      1. 5.1 Important features of a slip-ring motor
      2. 5.2 Starting of slip-ring motors
      3. 5.3 Hypothetical procedure to calculate the rotor resistance
      4. 5.4 Speed control of slip-ring motors
      5. 5.5 Moving electrode electrolyte starters and controllers
      6. List of formulae used
    6. Chapter 6: Static Controls and Braking of Motors
      1. 6.1 Speed control in squirrel cage motors
      2. 6.2 Speed control through solid-state technology
      3. 6.3 V/f control (speed control at constant torque)
      4. 6.4 Phasor (vector) control
      5. 6.5 Use of phasor control for flux braking
      6. 6.6 Control and feedback devices
      7. 6.7 Application of solid-state technology
      8. 6.8 Conduction and commutation
      9. 6.9 Circuit configurations of semiconductor devices
      10. 6.10 Smoothing ripples in the d.c. link
      11. 6.11 Providing a constant d.c. voltage source
      12. 6.12 Providing a constant current source
      13. 6.13 Generation of harmonics and switching surges in a static device switching circuit
      14. 6.14 Protection of semiconductor devices and motors
      15. 6.15 Energy conservation through solid-state technology
      16. 6.16 Application of static drives
      17. 6.17 Speed variation through variable-speed fluid couplings
      18. 6.18 Static drive versus fluid coupling
      19. 6.19 D.C. drives
      20. 6.20 Braking
      21. 6.21 Induction generators
      22. 6.22 Inching or jogging
      23. 6.23 Number of starts and stops
      24. List of formulae used
    7. Chapter 7: Special-Purpose Motors
      1. 7.1 Textile motors
      2. 7.2 Crane motors
      3. 7.3 Determining the size of motor
      4. 7.4 Sugar centrifuge motors
      5. 7.5 Motors for deep-well pumps
      6. 7.6 Motors for agricultural application
      7. 7.7 Surface-cooled motors
      8. 7.8 Torque motors or actuator motors
      9. 7.9 Vibration and noise level
      10. 7.10 Service factors
      11. 7.11 Motors for hazardous locations
      12. 7.12 Specification of motors for Zone 0 locations
      13. 7.13 Specification of motors for Zone 1 locations
      14. 7.14 Motors for Zone 2 locations
      15. 7.15 Motors for mines, collieries and quarries
      16. 7.16 Intrinsically safe circuits, type Ex ‘i’
      17. 7.17 Testing and certifying authorities
      18. 7.18 Additional requirements for critical installations
      19. 7.19 Motors for thermal power station auxiliaries
      20. 7.20 Selection of a special-purpose motor
      21. List of formulae used
    8. Chapter 8: Transmission of Load and Suitability of Bearings
      1. 8.1 Direct or rigid couplings
      2. 8.2 Flexible couplings
      3. 8.3 Delayed action couplings
      4. 8.4 Construction and principle of operation
      5. 8.5 Belt drives
      6. 8.6 Checking the suitability of bearings
      7. 8.7 Suitability of rotors for pulley drives
      8. List of formulae used
    9. Chapter 9: Winding Insulation and its Maintenance
      1. 9.1 Insulating materials and their properties
      2. 9.2 Ageing of insulation
      3. 9.3 Practices of insulation systems
      4. 9.4 Procedure for vacuum pressure impregnation (with particular reference to HT motors)
      5. 9.5 Maintenance of insulation
      6. 9.6 Monitoring the quality of insulation of HT formed coils during manufacturing
      7. List of formulae used
    10. Chapter 10: Maintenance of Electric Motors
      1. 10.1 Installation of bearings and pulleys
      2. 10.2 Important checks at the time of commissioning
      3. 10.3 Maintenance of electric motors and their checks
      4. 10.4 Maintenance of bearings
      5. 10.5 General problems in electric motors and their remedy
      6. 10.6 Winding temperature measurement at site
      7. 10.7 Analysis of insulation failures of an HT motor at a thermal power station
      8. List of formulae used
    11. Chapter 11: Quality Systems and Testing of Electrical Machines
      1. 11.1 Philosophy of quality systems (a reference to ISO 9000)
      2. 11.2 Testing of electrical machines
      3. 11.3 Procedure for testing
      4. 11.4 Load test
      5. 11.5 No load test
      6. 11.6 Tolerances in test results
      7. 11.7 Certification of motors used in hazardous locations
    12. Chapter 12: Protection of Electric Motors
      1. 12.1 Purpose
      2. 12.2 Unfavourable operating conditions
      3. 12.3 Fault conditions
      4. 12.4 Protection
      5. 12.5 Single-device motor protection relays
      6. 12.6 Summary of total motor protection
      7. 12.7 Motor protection by thermistors
      8. 12.8 Monitoring of a motor’s actual operating conditions
      9. 12.9 Switchgears for motor protection
      10. 12.10 Selection of main components
      11. 12.11 Fuse-free system
      12. List of formulae used
      13. Appendix Rules of Thumb for Every-day Use
      14. Power requirements for pumps
      15. Power requirements for lifts
      16. Power requirements for fans
      17. Important formulae
      18. Conversion table
  12. Part II: Switchgear Assemblies and Captive Power Generation
    1. Chapter 13: Switchgear and Controlgear Assemblies
      1. 13.1 Application
      2. 13.2 Types of assemblies
      3. 13.3 Conventional designs of switchgear assemblies (also referred to as switchboards)
      4. 13.4 Design parameters and service conditions for a switchgear assembly
      5. 13.5 Deciding the ratings of current-carrying equipment, devices and components
      6. 13.6 Designing a bus system
      7. 13.7 Designing a switchgear assembly
      8. 13.8 HT switchgear assemblies
      9. 13.9 General guidelines during installation and maintenance of a switchgear or a controlgear assembly
      10. 13.10 Power circuits and control scheme diagrams
      11. Appendix: Painting procedure of switchgear and controlgear assemblies and treatment of effluent
      12. List of formulae used
    2. Chapter 14: Testing of Metal-enclosed: Switchgear Assemblies
      1. 14.1 Philosophy of quality systems
      2. 14.2 Recommended tests
      3. 14.3 Procedure for type tests
      4. 14.4 Procedure for routine tests
      5. 14.5 Procedure for field tests
      6. 14.6 An introduction to earthquake engineering and testing methods
    3. Chapter 15: Instrument and Control Transformers: Application and Selection
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Types of transformer
      3. 15.3 Common features of a voltage and a current transformer
      4. 15.4 General specifications and design considerations for voltage transformers (VTs)
      5. 15.5 Precautions to be observed while installing a voltage transformer
      6. 15.6 Current transformers (CTs)
      7. 15.7 Short-time rating and effect of momentary peak or dynamic currents
      8. 15.8 Summary of specifications of a CT
      9. 15.9 Precautions to be observed when connecting a CT
      10. 15.10 Test requirements
      11. List of formulae used
    4. Chapter 16: Captive (Emergency) Power Generation
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.2 DG set
      3. 16.3 Operating parameters
      4. 16.4 Theory of operation
      5. 16.5 Guidelines on the selection of a DG set
      6. 16.6 Types of loads
      7. 16.7 Starting of a DG set
      8. 16.8 Protection of a DG set
      9. 16.9 Parallel operation
      10. 16.10 Procedure of parallel operation
      11. 16.11 Recommended protection for a synchronizing scheme
      12. 16.12 Load sharing by two or more generators
      13. 16.13 Total automation through PLCs
  13. Part III: Voltage Surges, Overvoltages and Grounding Practices
    1. Chapter 17: Voltage Surges–Causes, Effects and Remedies
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Temporary overvoltages
      3. 17.3 Voltage surge or a transient
      4. 17.4 Transient stability of overhead lines
      5. 17.5 Causes of voltage surges
      6. 17.6 Definitions
      7. 17.7 Causes of steep-rising surges
      8. 17.8 Effect of steep-fronted TRVs on the terminal equipment (motor as the basis)
      9. 17.9 Determining the severity of a transient
      10. 17.10 Protection of rotating machines from switching surges
      11. 17.11 Theory of surge protection (insulation coordination)
      12. List of formulae used
    2. Chapter 18: Surge Arresters: Application and Selection
      1. 18.1 Surge arresters
      2. 18.2 Electrical characteristics of a ZnO surge arrester
      3. 18.2.1 Electrical representation of a ZnO element
      4. 18.2.2 Maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV), Vc (point 1 on the curve of Figure 18.4(a))
      5. 18.2.3 Rated voltage, Vr (point 2 on the curve of Figure 18.4(a))
      6. 18.2.4 Reference voltage (point 3 on the curve of Figure 18.4(a))
      7. 18.2.5 Temporary overvoltage (TOV) (Figure 18.4(a))
      8. 18.2.6 Transient voltages (Figure 18.4(a))
      9. 18.2.7 Protective level (Figures 18.4(a) and (b)
      10. 18.3 Basic insulation level (BIL)
      11. 18.4 Protective margins
      12. 18.5 Protective level of a surge arrester
      13. 18.6 Selection of a gapless surge arrester
      14. 18.7 Classification of arresters
      15. 18.8 Surge protection of motors
      16. 18.9 Pressure relief facility
      17. 18.10 Assessing the condition of an arrester
      18. List of formulae used
    3. Chapter 19: Circuit Interrupters
      1. 19.1 Circuit interrupters
      2. 19.2 Theory of circuit interruption with different switching mediums (theory of deionization)
      3. 19.3 Theory of arc plasma
      4. 19.4 Circuit breaking under unfavourable operating conditions
      5. 19.5 Circuit interruption in different mediums
      6. 19.6 Current chopping
      7. 19.7 Virtual current chopping
      8. 19.8 Containing the severity of switching surges
      9. 19.9 Comparison of interrupting devices
    4. Chapter 20: Temporary Overvoltages and System Grounding
      1. 20.1 Theory of overvoltages
      2. 20.2 Analysis of ungrounded and grounded systems
      3. 20.3 The necessity for grounding an electrical system
      4. 20.4 Analysis of a grounded system
      5. 20.5 Arc suppression coil or ground fault neutralizer
      6. 20.6 Ground fault factor (GFF)
      7. 20.7 Magnitude of temporary overvoltages
      8. 20.8 Insulation coordination
      9. 20.9 Application of different types of grounding methods (for HT, HV and EHV* systems)
      10. 20.10 Important parameters for selecting a ground fault protection scheme
      11. List of formulae used
    5. Chapter 21: Grounding Theory and Ground Fault Protection Schemes
      1. 21.1 Protection of a domestic or an industrial single-phase system
      2. 21.2 Ground fault on an LT system
      3. 21.3 Ground fault protection in hazardous areas
      4. 21.4 Ground leakage in an HT system
      5. 21.5 Core-balanced current transformers (CBCTs)
      6. 21.6 Ground fault (G/F) protection schemes
      7. List of formulae used
    6. Chapter 22: Grounding Practices
      1. 22.1 Grounding electrodes for industrial installations and substations
      2. 22.2 Resistivity of soil (ρ)
      3. 22.3 Measuring the ground resistance
      4. 22.4 Metal for the grounding conductor
      5. 22.5 Jointing of grounding conductors
      6. 22.6 Maintenance of grounding stations
      7. 22.7 Grounding practices in a power generating station
      8. 22.8 Tolerable potential difference at a location
      9. 22.9 Voltage gradients
      10. 22.10 Determining the leakage current through a body
      11. 22.11 Measuring the average resistivity of soil
      12. 22.12 Improving the performance of soil
      13. 22.13 Determining the ground fault current
      14. 22.14 Designing a grounding grid
      15. List of formulae used
  14. Part IV: Power Capacitors
    1. Chapter 23: Power Capacitors: Behaviour, Switching Phenomena and Improvement of Power Factor
      1. 23.1 Introduction
      2. 23.2 Application of power capacitors
      3. 23.3 Effect of low PF
      4. 23.4 Other benefits of an improved power factor
      5. 23.5 Behaviour of a power capacitor in operation
      6. 23.11 Limiting the inrush currents
      7. 23.12 Capacitor panel design parameters
      8. 23.13 Capacitor rating for an induction motor
      9. 23.14 Location of capacitors
      10. 23.15 Automatic PF correction of a system
      11. 23.16 Switching sequences
      12. 23.17 PF correction relays
      13. List of formulae used
    2. Chapter 24: System Voltage Regulation
      1. 24.1 Capacitors for improvement of system voltage regulation
      2. 24.2 Series capacitors
      3. 24.3 Rating of series capacitors
      4. 24.4 Advantages of series compensation
      5. 24.5 Analysis of a system for series compensation
      6. 24.6 Reactive power management
      7. 24.7 Influence of line length (Ferranti effect)
      8. 24.8 Optimizing power transfer through reactive control
      9. 24.9 Transient stability level
      10. 24.10 Switching of large reactive banks
      11. List of formulae used
    3. Chapter 25: Making Capacitor Units and Ratings of Switching Devices
      1. 25.1 Making a capacitor element
      2. 25.2 A critical review of internally protected capacitor units
      3. 25.3 Self-healing capacitors
      4. 25.4 Making a capacitor unit from elements
      5. 25.5 Making capacitor banks from capacitor units
      6. 25.6 Rating and selection of components for capacitor duty
      7. 25.7 Fast discharge devices
      8. List of formulae used
    4. Chapter 26: Protection, Maintenance and Testing of Capacitor Units
      1. 26.1 Protection and safety requirements
      2. 26.2 Installation and maintenance of capacitor units
      3. 26.3 Test requirements
      4. List of formulae used
    5. Chapter 27: Power Reactors
      1. 27.1 Introduction
      2. 27.2a Selection of power reactors
      3. 27.2b Magnetic characteristics
      4. 27.3 Design criterion and I-φ characteristics of different types of reactor
      5. 27.4 Application
  15. Part V: Bus Systems
    1. Chapter 28: Carrying Power Through Metal-enclosed Bus Systems
      1. 28.1 Introduction
      2. 28.2 Types of metal-enclosed bus systems
      3. 28.3 Design parameters and service conditions for a metal-enclosed bus system
      4. 28.4 Short-circuit effects
      5. 28.5 Service conditions
      6. 28.6 Other design considerations
      7. 28.7 Skin effect
      8. 28.8 Proximity effect
      9. 28.9 Sample calculations for designing a 2500 A non-isolated phase aluminium busbar system
      10. List of formulae used
    2. Chapter 29: Recommended Practices for Mounting Buses and Making Bus Joints
      1. 29.1 Precautions in mounting insulators and conductors
      2. 29.2 Making a joint
      3. 29.3 Bending of busbars
    3. Chapter 30: Properties and Ratings of Current-carrying Conductors
      1. 30.1 Properties and current ratings for aluminium and copper conductors
      2. 30.2 Current-carrying capacity of copper and aluminium conductors
    4. Chapter 31: An Isolated Phase Bus System
      1. 31.1 An isolated phase bus (IPB) system
      2. 31.2 Constructional features
      3. 31.3 Special features of an IPB system
      4. 31.4 Enclosure heating
      5. 31.5 Natural cooling of enclosures
      6. 31.6 Continuous rating
      7. 31.7 Forced cooling
      8. 31.8 Influence of a space field on metallic structures
      9. 31.9 Fault level
      10. 31.10 Voltage drop
      11. 31.11 Forming sections for IPB systems
      12. 31.12 Determining the section and size of conductor and enclosure
      13. 31.13 Sample calculations
      14. List of formulae used
    5. Chapter 32: Testing a Metal-enclosed Bus System
      1. 32.1 Philosophy of quality systems
      2. 32.2 Recommended tests
      3. 32.3 Procedure for type tests
  16. Index