1 Disrupters, Breadcrumbs and the Managerial Revolution

The digital revolution is one of the major turning points of humanity, at the same level as the invention of writing and the invention of printing by Gutenberg which made possible the emergence of the Enlightenment. The digital transformation is a technological revolution comparable to the appearance of electricity, except that it has changed the world in 20 years instead of a century!

Google, Facebook, Amazon, Airbnb and the like have attacked and disintermediated a large number of professions which thought themselves untouchable, like booksellers, advertisers, taxis, hotels and so on. Today, instead of going to a bookstore, a 21st-Century person goes to the Amazon website.

After four years, the Airbnb startup offers over 200 countries more rooms to rent every day than the Hilton group, which has built up its heritage over a hundred years. Uber, like Airbnb, shows that user experience is superior to regulation. Uber not only interacts with 10 million customers and 200,000 drivers, but also interacts with banks, payment systems, traffic information systems, social networks and so on. The more the firm interacts, the more it creates value and becomes indispensable for its users. Joël de Rosnay (2016) describes these firms as “disruptors” (or disruption). In the classical model, goods and services are distributed by networks to reach consumers and create a profit margin. In the disruptive model, platforms allow the creation ...

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