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Instrumentation Reference Book, 4th Edition

Book Description

Instrumentation embraces the equipment and systems used to detect, track and store data related to physical, chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of materials, systems and operations. While traditionally a key area within mechanical and industrial engineering, it also has a strong presence in electrical, chemical, civil and environmental engineering, biomedical and aerospace engineering. The discipline of Instrumentation has grown appreciably in recent years because of advances in sensor technology and in the inter-connectivity of sensors, computers and control systems. In turn, this has meant that the automation of manufacturing, process industries, and even building and infrastructure construction has been improved dramatically. And now with remote wireless instrumentation, heretofore inaccessible or widely dispersed operations and procedures can be automatically monitored and controlled.

The new 4th edition of this already well-established reference work, will reflect these dramatic changes with improved and expanded coverage of the both the traditional domains of instrumentation as well as the cutting edge areas of digital integration of complex sensor/control systems.


Thoroughly revised, with up-to-date coverage of wireless sensors and systems, as well as nanotechnologies role in the evolution of sensor technology

Latest information on new sensor equipment, new measurement standards, and new software for embedded control systems, networking and automated control

Three entirely new sections on Controllers, Actuators and Final Control Elements; Manufacturing Execution Systems; and Automation Knowledge Base

Up-dated and expanded references and critical standards

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Contributors
  6. Introduction
  7. Chapter 1. The Automation Practicum
  8. 1.1. Introduction
  9. 1.2. Job Descriptions
  10. 1.3. Careers and Career Paths
  11. 1.4. Where Automation Fits in the Extended Enterprise
  12. 1.5. Manufacturing Execution Systems and Manufacturing Operations Management
  13. Chapter 2. Basic Principles of Industrial Automation
  14. 2.1. Introduction
  15. 2.2. Standards
  16. 2.3. Sensor and System Design, Installation, and Commissioning
  17. 2.4. Maintenance and Operation
  18. Chapter 3. Measurement Methods and Control Strategies
  19. 3.1. Introduction
  20. 3.2. Measurement and Field Calibration Methodology
  21. 3.3. Process Control Strategies
  22. 3.4. Advanced Control Strategies
  23. Chapter 4. Simulation and Design Software
  24. 4.1. Introduction
  25. 4.2. Simulation
  26. 4.3. Best Practices for Simulation Systems in Automation
  27. 4.4. Ground-up Testing and Training
  28. 4.5. Simulation System Selection
  29. 4.6. Simulation for Automation in the Validated Industries
  30. 4.7. Conclusion
  31. Chapter 5. Security for Industrial Automation
  32. 5.1. The Security Problem
  33. 5.2. An Analysis of the Security Needs of Industrial Automation
  34. 5.3. Some Recommendations for Industrial Automation Security
  35. Chapter 6. Measurement of Flow
  36. 6.1. Introduction
  37. 6.2. Basic principles of Flow Measurement
  38. 6.3. Fluid Flow in Closed Pipes
  39. 6.4. Flow in Open Channels
  40. 6.5. Point Velocity Measurement
  41. 6.6. Flowmeter Calibration Methods
  42. Chapter 7. Measurement of Viscosity
  43. 7.1. Introduction
  44. 7.2. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Behavior
  45. 7.3. Measurement of the Shear Viscosity
  46. 7.4. Shop-Floor Viscometers
  47. 7.5. Measurement of the Extensional Viscosity
  48. 7.6. Measurement of Viscosity Under Extremes of Temperature and Pressure
  49. 7.7. Online Measurements
  50. 7.8. Accuracy and Range
  51. Chapter 8. Measurement of Length
  52. 8.1. Introduction
  53. 8.2. The Nature of Length
  54. 8.3. Derived Measurements
  55. 8.4. Standards and Calibration of Length
  56. 8.5. Practice of Length Measurement for Industrial Use
  57. 8.6. Automatic Gauging Systems
  58. Chapter 9. Measurement of Strain
  59. 9.1. Strain
  60. 9.2. Bonded Resistance Strain Gauges
  61. 9.3. Gauge Characteristics
  62. 9.4. Installation
  63. 9.5. Circuits for Strain Gauges
  64. 9.6. Vibrating Wire Strain Gauge
  65. 9.7. Capacitive Strain Gauges
  66. 9.8. Surveys of Whole Surfaces
  67. 9.9. Photoelasticity
  68. Chapter 10. Measurement of Level and Volume
  69. 10.1. Introduction
  70. 10.2. Practice of Level Measurement
  71. 10.3. Calibration of Level-Measuring Systems
  72. 10.4. Methods Providing Full-Range Level Measurement
  73. 10.5. Methods Providing Short-Range Detection
  74. Chapter 11. Vibration
  75. 11.1. Introduction
  76. 11.2. Amplitude calibration
  77. 11.3. Sensor practice
  78. 11.4. Literature
  79. Chapter 12. Measurement of Force
  80. 12.1. Basic Concepts
  81. 12.2. Force Measurement Methods
  82. 12.3. Lever-Balance Methods
  83. 12.4. Force-Balance Methods
  84. 12.5. Hydraulic Pressure Measurement
  85. 12.6. Acceleration Measurement
  86. 12.7. Elastic Elements
  87. 12.8. Further Developments
  88. Chapter 13. Measurement of Density
  89. 13.1. General
  90. 13.2. Measurement of Density Using Weight
  91. 13.3. Measurement of Density Using Buoyancy
  92. 13.4. Measurement of Density Using a Hydrostatic Head
  93. 13.5. Measurement of Density Using Radiation
  94. 13.6. Measurement of Density Using Resonant Elements
  95. Chapter 14. Measurement of Pressure
  96. 14.1. What is Pressure?
  97. 14.2. Pressure Measurement
  98. 14.3. Pressure Transmitters
  99. Chapter 15. Measurement of Vacuum
  100. 15.1. Introduction
  101. 15.2. Absolute Gauges
  102. 15.3. Nonabsolute Gauges
  103. Chapter 16. Particle Sizing
  104. 16.1. Introduction
  105. 16.2. Characterization of Particles
  106. 16.3. Terminal Velocity
  107. 16.4. Optical Effects Caused by Particles
  108. 16.5. Particle Shape
  109. 16.6. Methods for Characterizing a Group of Particles
  110. 16.7. Analysis Methods that Measure Size Directly
  111. 16.8. Analysis Methods that Measure Terminal Velocity
  112. 16.9. Analysis Methods that Infer Size from Some Other Property
  113. Chapter 17. Fiber Optics in Sensor Instrumentation
  114. 17.1. Introduction
  115. 17.2. Principles of Optical Fiber Sensing
  116. 17.3. Interferometric Sensing Approach
  117. 17.4. Doppler Anemometry
  118. 17.5. In-Fiber Sensing Structures
  119. Chapter 18. Nanotechnology for Sensors
  120. 18.1. Introduction
  121. 18.2. What is Nanotechnology?
  122. 18.3. Nanotechnology for Pressure Transmitters
  123. 18.4. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
  124. 18.5. MEMS Sensors Today
  125. Chapter 19. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters
  126. 19.1. Introduction
  127. 19.2. Terminology
  128. 19.3. Background Information
  129. 19.4. Attributes and Features of Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters
  130. 19.5. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Temperature Transmitters
  131. 19.6. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Pressure and Differential Transmitters
  132. 19.7. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Flowmeters
  133. 19.8. Other Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters
  134. 19.9. Other Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Measurement Systems
  135. 19.10. Fieldbus
  136. 19.11. User Experience with Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters
  137. 19.12. Fieldbus Function and Benefits
  138. Chapter 20. Industrial Wireless Technology and Planning
  139. 20.1. Introduction
  140. 20.2. The History of Wireless
  141. 20.3. The Basics
  142. 20.4. Planning for Wireless
  143. Chapter 21. Temperature Measurement
  144. 21.1. Temperature and Heat
  145. 21.2. Temperature Scales
  146. 21.3. Measurement Techniques: Direct Effects
  147. 21.4. Measurement Techniques: Electrical
  148. 21.5. Measurement Techniques: Thermocouples
  149. 21.6. Measurement Techniques: Radiation Thermometers
  150. 21.7. Temperature Measurement Considerations
  151. Chapter 22. Chemical Analysis
  152. 22.1. Introduction to Chemical Analysis
  153. 22.2. Chromatography
  154. 22.3. Polarography and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
  155. 22.4. Thermal Analysis
  156. Chapter 23. Chemical Analysis
  157. 23.1. Introduction
  158. 23.2. Absorption and Reflection Techniques
  159. 23.3. Atomic Techniques: Emission, Absorption, and Fluorescence
  160. 23.4. X-Ray Spectroscopy
  161. 23.5. Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy
  162. 23.6. Microwave Spectroscopy
  163. 23.7. Neutron Activation
  164. 23.8. Mass Spectrometers
  165. Chapter 24. Chemical Analysis
  166. 24.1. Acids and Alkalis
  167. 24.2. Ionization of Water
  168. 24.3. Electrical Conductivity
  169. 24.4. The Concept of PH
  170. 24.5. Electrode Potentials
  171. 24.6. Ion-Selective Electrodes
  172. 24.7. Potentiometry and Specific Ion Measurement
  173. 24.8. Common Electrochemical Analyzers
  174. Chapter 25. Chemical Analysis
  175. 25.1. Introduction
  176. 25.2. Separation of Gaseous Mixtures
  177. 25.3. Detectors
  178. 25.4. Process Chromatography
  179. 25.5. Special Gas Analyzers
  180. 25.6. Calibration of gas analyzers
  181. Chapter 26. Chemical Analysis
  182. 26.1. Introduction
  183. 26.2. Definitions
  184. 26.3. Measurement techniques
  185. 26.4. Calibration
  186. Chapter 27. Electrical Measurements
  187. 27.1. Units and Standards of Electrical Measurement
  188. 27.2. Measurement of DC and AC Current and Voltage Using Indicating Instruments
  189. 27.3. Digital Voltmeters and Digital Multimeters
  190. 27.4. Power Measurement
  191. 27.5. Measurement of Electrical Energy
  192. 27.6. Power-factor measurement
  193. 27.7. The Measurement of Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance
  194. 27.8. Digital Frequency and Period/Time-Interval Measurement
  195. 27.9. Frequency and phase measurement using an oscilloscope
  196. Chapter 28. Optical Measurements
  197. 28.1. Introduction
  198. 28.2. Light Sources
  199. 28.3. Detectors
  200. 28.4. Detector Techniques
  201. 28.5. Intensity measurement
  202. 28.6. Wavelength and Color
  203. 28.7. Measurement of Optical Properties
  204. 28.8. Thermal Imaging Techniques
  205. Chapter 29. Nuclear Instrumentation Technology
  206. 29.1. Introduction
  207. 29.2. Detectors
  208. 29.3. Electronics
  209. Chapter 30. Measurements Employing Nuclear Techniques
  210. 30.1. Introduction
  211. 30.2. Materials Analysis
  212. 30.3. Mechanical measurements
  213. 30.4. Miscellaneous Measurements
  214. Chapter 31. Non-Destructive Testing
  215. 31.1. Introduction
  216. 31.2. Visual Examination
  217. 31.3. Surface-Inspection Methods
  218. 31.4. Ultrasonics
  219. 31.5. Radiography
  220. 31.6. Underwater Non-Destructive Testing
  221. 31.7. Developments
  222. 31.8. Certification of Personnel
  223. Chapter 32. Noise Measurement
  224. 32.1. Sound and Sound Fields
  225. 32.2. Instrumentation for the Measurement of Sound-Pressure Level
  226. 32.3. Frequency Analyzers
  227. 32.4. Recorders
  228. 32.5. Sound-Intensity Analyzers
  229. 32.6. Calibration of Measuring Instruments
  230. 32.7. The Measurement of Sound-Pressure Level and Sound Level
  231. 32.8. Effect of Environmental Conditions on Measurements
  232. Chapter 33. Field Controllers, Hardware and Software
  233. 33.1. Introduction
  234. 33.2. Field Controllers, Hardware, and Software
  235. Chapter 34. Advanced Control for the Plant Floor
  236. 34.1. Introduction
  237. 34.2. Early Developments
  238. 34.3. The Need for Process Control
  239. 34.4. Unmeasured Disturbances
  240. 34.5. Automatic Control Valves
  241. 34.6. Types of Feedback Control
  242. 34.7. Measured Disturbances
  243. 34.8. The Need for Models
  244. 34.9. The Emergence of MPC
  245. 34.10. MPC vs. ARC
  246. 34.11. Hierarchy
  247. 34.12. Other Problems with MPC
  248. 34.13. Where We are Today?
  249. 34.14. Recommendations for Using MPC
  250. 34.15. What's in Store for the Next 40 Years?
  251. Chapter 35. Batch Process Control
  252. 35.1. Introduction
  253. Chapter 36. Applying Control Valves
  254. 36.1. Introduction
  255. 36.2. Valve Types and Characteristics
  256. 36.3. Distortion of Valve Characteristics
  257. 36.4. Rangeability
  258. 36.5. Loop Tuning
  259. 36.6. Positioning Positioners
  260. 36.7. Smarter Smart Valves
  261. 36.8. Valves Serve as Flowmeters
  262. Chapter 37. Design and Construction of Instruments
  263. 37.1. Introduction
  264. 37.2. Instrument Design
  265. 37.3. Elements of Construction
  266. 37.4. Construction of Electronic Instruments
  267. 37.5. Mechanical Instruments
  268. Chapter 38. Instrument Installation and Commissioning
  269. 38.1. Introduction
  270. 38.2. General Requirements
  271. 38.3. Storage and Protection
  272. 38.4. Mounting and Accessibility
  273. 38.5. Piping Systems
  274. 38.6. Cabling
  275. 38.7. Grounding
  276. 38.8. Testing and Pre-Commissioning
  277. 38.9. Plant Commissioning
  278. Chapter 39. Sampling
  279. 39.1. Introduction
  280. 39.2. Sample System Components
  281. 39.3. Typical Sample Systems
  282. Chapter 40. Telemetry
  283. 40.1. Introduction
  284. 40.2. Communication Channels
  285. 40.3. Signal Multiplexing
  286. 40.4. Pulse Encoding
  287. 40.5. Carrier Wave Modulation
  288. 40.6. Error Detection and Correction Codes
  289. 40.7. Direct Analog Signal Transmission
  290. 40.8. Frequency Transmission
  291. 40.9. Digital Signal Transmission
  292. Chapter 41. Display and Recording
  293. 41.1. Introduction
  294. 41.2. Indicating Devices
  295. 41.3. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
  296. 41.4. Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)
  297. 41.5. Plasma Displays
  298. 41.6. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs)
  299. 41.7. Graphical Recorders
  300. 41.8. Magnetic Recording
  301. 41.9. Transient/Waveform Recorders
  302. 41.10. Data Loggers
  303. Chapter 42. Pneumatic Instrumentation
  304. 42.1. Basic Characteristics
  305. 42.2. Pneumatic Measurement and Control Systems
  306. 42.3. Principal Measurements
  307. 42.4. Pneumatic Transmission
  308. 42.5. Pneumatic Controllers
  309. 42.6. Signal Conditioning
  310. 42.7. Electropneumatic Interface
  311. Chapter 43. Reliability in Instrumentation and Control
  312. 43.1. Reliability Principles and Terminology
  313. 43.2. Reliability Assessment
  314. 43.3. System Design
  315. 43.4. Building High-reliability Systems
  316. 43.5. The Human Operatorin Control and Instrumentation
  317. 43.6. Safety Monitoring
  318. 43.7. Software reliability
  319. 43.8. Electronic and Avionic Systems
  320. 43.9. Nuclear Reactor Control Systems
  321. 43.10. Process and Plant Control
  322. Chapter 44. Safety
  323. 44.1. Introduction
  324. 44.2. Electrocution Risk
  325. 44.3. Flammable Atmospheres
  326. 44.4. Other Safety Aspects
  327. 44.5. Conclusion
  328. Chapter 45. EMC
  329. 45.1. Introduction
  330. 45.2. Interference coupling mechanisms
  331. 45.3. Circuits, Layout, and Grounding
  332. 45.4. Interfaces, filtering, and shielding
  333. 45.5. The Regulatory Framework
  334. Appendix A. General Instrumentation Books
  335. Appendix B. Professional Societies and Associations
  336. Appendix C. The Institute of Measurement and Control
  337. Appendix D. International Society of Automation, Formerly Instrument Society of America
  338. Index