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Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technologies

Book Description

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technologies discusses this innovative power generation technology that combines modern coal gasification technology with both gas turbine and steam turbine power generation, an important emerging technology which has the potential to significantly improve the efficiencies and emissions of coal power plants.

The advantages of this technology over conventional pulverized coal power plants include fuel flexibility, greater efficiencies, and very low pollutant emissions. The book reviews the current status and future developments of key technologies involved in IGCC plants and how they can be integrated to maximize efficiency and reduce the cost of electricity generation in a carbon-constrained world.

The first part of this book introduces the principles of IGCC systems and the fuel types for use in IGCC systems. The second part covers syngas production within IGCC systems. The third part looks at syngas cleaning, the separation of CO2 and hydrogen enrichment, with final sections describing the gas turbine combined cycle and presenting several case studies of existing IGCC plants.

  • Provides an in-depth, multi-contributor overview of integrated gasification combined cycle technologies
  • Reviews the current status and future developments of key technologies involved in IGCC plants
  • Provides several case studies of existing IGCC plants around the world

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. 1. An overview of IGCC systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Introduction of IGCC
    3. 1.2 Layouts of key IGCC components and processes
    4. Detailed Description of Each Process and Component
    5. 1.4 Gasifiers
    6. 1.5 Syngas cooling
    7. 1.6 Gas cleanup system
    8. 1.7 WGS application for pre-combustion CO2 capture
    9. 1.8 Combined cycle power island
    10. 1.9 Economics
    11. 1.10 Cogasification of coal/biomass
    12. 1.11 Polygeneration
    13. 1.12 Conclusion
    14. Nomenclatures and acronyms
    15. References
    16. Biography
  7. Part I: Fuel types for use in IGCC systems
    1. 2. Utilization of coal in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Integrated gasification combined cycle demonstration systems
      4. 2.3 Characteristics of coals
      5. 2.4 Comparison of high-rank coals versus low-rank coals properties for IGCC applications
      6. 2.5 Coal preparation
      7. 2.6 Feeding system
      8. 2.7 Influence of coal rank on gasifier operation
      9. 2.8 Utilization of other feedstocks in IGCC
      10. 2.9 Areas for improvement in gasification for viable use of IGCC technology
      11. References
      12. Biography
    2. 3. Petroleum coke (petcoke) and refinery residues
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Overview of petroleum coke for use in gasification plants
      4. 3.3 Overview of the refinery residues for use in gasification plants
      5. 3.4 Integration of refineries with gasification plants
      6. 3.5 Conclusions
      7. Further Reading
      8. Biography
    3. 4. Biomass feedstock for IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Biomass feedstocks for gasification
      4. 4.3 Preparation of biomass for gasification
      5. 4.4 IGCC Technology options for biomass fuels
      6. 4.5 Conclusions
      7. Nomenclatures and acronyms
      8. References
      9. Biographies
    4. 5. Municipal wastes and other potential fuels for use in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Municipal solid waste and gasification technology
      3. 5.2 Plasma gasification technology
      4. 5.3 Commercial facilities (WPC plasma gasification technology)
      5. 5.4 Process description-IPGCC power plant
      6. 5.5 Environmental considerations
      7. 5.6 Summary/Observations
      8. References
      9. Biography
  8. Part II: Syngas production and cooling
    1. 6. Gasification fundamentals
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Characterization of fuels
      4. 6.3 Classification of fuels
      5. 6.4 Moisture evaporation
      6. 6.5 Pyrolysis and volatiles release
      7. 6.6 Heterogenous reactions
      8. 6.7 Mineral matter transformations and ash deposition
      9. 6.8 Syngas composition
      10. 6.9 Air-blown versus oxygen blown
      11. 6.10 Summary
      12. References
      13. Biography
    2. 7. Effect of coal nature on the gasification process
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Effect of coal properties on the gasification process
      4. 7.3 Concluding Remarks
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. References
      7. Biography
    3. 8. Major gasifiers for IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Brief overview of the gasification process
      4. 8.3 Generic gasifier characteristics
      5. 8.4 Commercial entrained flow gasifiers
      6. 8.5 The General Electric gasifier
      7. 8.6 The Shell coal gasification process
      8. 8.7 The Siemens fuel gasification technology
      9. 8.8 The CB&I E-Gas coal gasification process
      10. 8.9 Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems gasification technology
      11. 8.10 The Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions PRENFLO coal gasification process
      12. 8.11 Commercial fluid bed gasifiers
      13. 8.12 The HTW fluid bed gasifier
      14. 8.13 The Kellogg Brown and Root transport gasifier (TRIG)
      15. 8.14 Commercial fixed (moving) bed gasifiers
      16. 8.15 Chinese gasifiers
      17. 8.16 East China University of Science and Technology opposed multiple burner gasifier
      18. 8.17 The TPRI gasifier
      19. 8.18 Emerging technologies, and novel concepts
      20. 8.19 The AR/ GTI compact gasifier
      21. 8.20 Chemical looping gasification
      22. 8.21 Summary and conclusions
      23. Acknowledgments
      24. References
      25. Biography
    4. 9. Syngas cooling in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction: purpose of cooling syngas after gasification
      3. 9.2 Thermodynamic aspects of syngas cooling
      4. 9.3 Methods of high temperature cooling
      5. 9.4 Low- temperature cooling and syngas saturation
      6. 9.5 Potential of high temperature gas clean-up
      7. 9.6 Impact on the power cycle
      8. References
      9. Biography
  9. Part III: Syngas cleaning, separation of CO2 and hydrogen enrichment
    1. 10. Wet scrubbing and gas filtration of syngas in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Contaminants removal of coal-based IGCC systems
      4. 10.3 Contaminants removal from biomass-based IGCC systems
      5. 10.4 Efficiency of IGCC systems as related to WS/PR
      6. 10.5 New technologies
      7. References
      8. Biography
    2. 11. Acid gas removal from syngas in IGCC plants
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Chemical solvents
      4. 11.3 Physical solvents
      5. 11.4 Hybrid solvents
      6. 11.5 Warm gas cleanup technologies
      7. 11.6 Other technologies
      8. 11.7 Applications of AGR technologies in commercial IGCC plants
      9. 11.8 Impact of sulfur recovery technology on the selection of the AGR technology
      10. 11.9 Conclusions
      11. References
      12. Biography
    3. 12. Hydrogen production in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction: hydrogen coproduction in integrated gasification combined cycle systems
      3. 12.2 Processes for hydrogen production from IGCC
      4. 12.3 Advanced concepts for hydrogen production
      5. 12.4 Advantage of hydrogen coproduction in IGCC
      6. 12.5 Hydrogen storage
      7. 12.6 Summary
      8. Nomenclature
      9. References
      10. Biographies
    4. 13. Integration of carbon capture in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture
      4. 13.3 Types of CCUS technology
      5. 13.4 Future trends for CCUS technologies for IGCC systems
      6. 13.5 Integration of CCUS technologies into IGCC systems
      7. 13.6 Conclusions
      8. References
      9. Biography
    5. 14. By-products from the integrated gas combined cycle in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Generation of residues in IGCC
      4. 14.3 Characterization of by-products from IGCC systems
      5. 14.4 Management of by-products
      6. 14.5 Examples
      7. 14.6 Future Trends
      8. 14.7 Summary
      9. 14.8 Sources and further information
      10. References
      11. Biography
  10. Part IV: The combined cycle power island and IGCC system simulations
    1. 15. The gas and steam turbines and combined cycle in IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. Nomenclature
      3. 15.1 Introduction
      4. 15.2 Gas turbine systems
      5. 15.3 Thermodynamics of the Brayton Cycle
      6. 15.4 Industrial heavy-frame gas turbine systems
      7. 15.5 Axial compressors and turbine aerodynamics
      8. 15.6 Turbine blade cooling
      9. 15.7 Thermal-flow characteristics in dump diffuser and combustor-transition piece
      10. 15.8 Combustion
      11. 15.9 Steam turbine systems
      12. 15.10 Heat recovery steam generator
      13. 15.11 Combined cycle
      14. 15.12 Gas turbine inlet fogging
      15. 15.13 Case study of various power systems fueled with low calorific value (LCV) producer gases derived from biomass including inlet fogging and steam injection (Excerpted from Yap and Wang, 2007)
      16. 15.14 Conclusions
      17. References
      18. Biography
  11. Part V: Case studies of existing IGCC plants
    1. 16. A simulated IGCC case study without CCS
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Case summary and software description
      4. 16.3 Gasification block
      5. 16.4 Gas cleanup system
      6. 16.5 Power block
      7. 16.6 Steam seal and condenser
      8. 16.7 Results of the IGCC plant model
      9. 16.8 Conclusions
      10. References
      11. Biography of the first author
    2. 17. Dynamic IGCC system simulator
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Development of an IGCC dynamic simulator with an operator training system (OTS)
      4. 17.3 Capabilities, features, and architecture of the IGCC dynamic simulator and OTS
      5. 17.4 3D virtual plant and immersive training system
      6. 17.5 Capabilities, features, and architecture of the IGCC 3D virtual plant and ITS
      7. 17.6 Leveraging the IGCC dynamic simulator and 3D virtual plant in advanced research
      8. 17.7 Using the IGCC OTS and ITS in engineering education and industry workforce training
      9. 17.8 Conclusions
      10. Nomenclature
      11. References
      12. Biographies
    3. 18. Case study: Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project, USA
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Project structure and background
      3. 18.2 Project description
      4. 18.3 Environmental performance
      5. 18.4 Design and construction
      6. 18.5 Commercial operation
      7. 18.6 Ownership changes
      8. 18.7 Conclusion
      9. References
      10. Biography
    4. 19. Case study: Nuon–Buggenum, The Netherlands
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Coal milling and drying
      4. 19.3 Coal feeding
      5. 19.4 Gasification system and fly ash removal
      6. 19.5 Gas cleaning and sulfur recovery
      7. 19.6 Air separation unit
      8. 19.7 Combined cycle unit
      9. 19.8 Conclusions
      10. Reference
      11. Biography
    5. 20. Case Study: ELCOGAS Puertollano IGCC power plant, Spain
      1. Abstract
      2. 20.1 ELCOGAS description
      3. 20.2 Technical description of Puertollano IGCC plant
      4. 20.3 Operating experience
      5. 20.4 Lessons learned
      6. 20.5 R&D investment plan
      7. 20.6 Future prospects
      8. References
    6. 21. Case study: Sarlux IGCC power plant, Italy
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Background—synergy and integration with the refinery
      3. 21.2 General description of Sarlux IGCC complex
      4. 21.3 Technical aspects and peculiarities of SARLUX IGCC
      5. 21.4 Plant performances
      6. 21.5 Environmental impact
      7. 21.6 Schedule of activities
      8. 21.7 Construction activities
      9. 21.8 Startup and performance tests
      10. 21.9 Key operational issues
      11. 21.10 IGCC complex availability and commercial operation
      12. 21.11 Further improvements
      13. Conclusions
      14. Nomenclature
      15. Further Reading
      16. Biographies
    7. 22. Case study: Nakoso IGCC power plant, Japan
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Air-blown IGCC demonstration test
      3. 22.2 Results and evaluation of the demonstration test
      4. 22.3 Operation plans after converting a demonstration plant to commercial use
      5. 22.4 Operation result after converting the demonstration plant to commercial use
      6. 22.5 Large-scale IGCC development plans by TEPCO
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
      9. Biography
    8. 23. Case study: Kemper County IGCC project, USA
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 Kemper County IGCC project description
      3. 23.2 Process overview
      4. 23.3 Technical description of Kemper County IGCC plant
      5. 23.4 Lignite properties
      6. 23.5 Expected synthesis gas composition
      7. 23.6 Projected environmental performance
      8. 23.7 Major accomplishments to date
      9. 23.8 Kemper IGCC demonstration period
      10. Conclusion
      11. Further Reading
      12. Biography
    9. 24. Improvement opportunities for IGCC
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 CO2 capture: opportunities for IGCC
      3. 24.2 Improvement of key units in IGCC with and without CCS
      4. 24.3 Efficiency of IGCC
      5. 24.4 Conclusions and outlook
      6. References
    10. 25. The current status and future prospects for IGCC systems
      1. Abstract
      2. Abbreviations
      3. 25.1 Introduction
      4. 25.2 IGCC status
      5. 25.3 Polygeneration
      6. 25.4 IGCC outlook
      7. 25.5 Summary
      8. Sources of further information and advice
      9. References
      10. Biography
  12. Index