Chapter 1

Physical Background

This chapter aims to provide the basic physical background on the topics that can be used in order to understand the operation principle of the various types of nano- and microphotonic devices. It provides the theory behind the basics of non-linear optics, introduction to semiconductors and optical waveguides. Anisotropic crystal is a non-symmetric or non-uniform crystal in which propagation observed in different directions meets different properties. In general, the polarization density vector is related to the external electrical field. In order to find the direction of propagation, one may use the well-known Snell law relating the direction of the incident beam (which is known) with the direction of beam’s propagation ...

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