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Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 3rd Edition by Jacob N. Israelachvili

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Chapter 22 Dynamic Biointeractions

22.1 Subtleties of Biological Forces and Interactions

While the intermolecular forces between biological molecules are no different from those that arise between any other types of molecules, a “biological interaction” is usually very different from a simple chemical reaction or physical change of a system. This is due in part to the higher complexity of biological macromolecules and systems that typically exhibit a hierarchy of non-equilibrium structures ranging in size from proteins to membranes and cells, to tissues and organs, and finally to whole organisms. Moreover, biological interactions do not occur in a linear, stepwise fashion, but involve competing interactions, branching pathways, feedback loops, ...

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