This report is based on an integration of the literature and the results of three research studies conducted by the Center for Creative Leadership between October 1994 and May 1997. Each study was guided by the same motive—to understand more about the antecedent conditions of expatriate effectiveness so as to inform selection and development practices in organizations. Our plan was to begin with the literature, then to conduct in-depth interviews with expatriates and repatriates to increase our understanding of the issues, and finally to develop and test our hypotheses using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

The series of studies offers several unique contributions. We were able to interview ...

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