nteroperability is an especially powerful tool for fostering innovation. Increased levels of interoperability at the right layer in a stack of technologies can lead to innovation at multiple levels. In the digital age, increased technical interoperability typically enables innovation at the human and institutional levels. As an example take Google Maps, a service that provides a basic infrastructure for geolocation information, upon which applications as diverse as restaurant guides or coordinated disaster relief efforts have been built. In theoretical terms, this quality is known as the generativity
of the Internet.1
In other instances, interop-based innovations allow societies to harness the creative spirit of individual ...