©  Armando Vieira, Bernardete Ribeiro 2018
Armando Vieira and Bernardete RibeiroIntroduction to Deep Learning Business Applications for Developershttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-3453-2_2

2. Deep Learning: An Overview

Armando Vieira1  and Bernardete Ribeiro2
Linköping, Sweden
Coimbra, Portugal

Artificial neural networks are not new; they have been around for about 50 years and got some practical recognition after the mid-1980s with the introduction of a method (backpropagation) that allowed for the training of multiple-layer neural networks. However, the true birth of deep learning may be traced to the year 2006, when Geoffrey Hinton [GR06] presented an algorithm to efficiently train deep neural networks in an unsupervised way—in other words, ...

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