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Introduction to Global Politics, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Fully revised and updated, the second edition of Introduction to Global Politics places an increased emphasis on the themes of continuity and change. It continues to explain global politics using an historical approach, firmly linking history with the events of today. By integrating theory and political practice at individual, state, and global levels, students are introduced to key developments in global politics, helping them make sense of major trends that are shaping our world.

This is a highly illustrated textbook with informative and interactive boxed material throughout. Chapter opening timelines contextualise the material that follows, and definitions of key terms are provided in a glossary at the end of the book. Every chapter ends with student activities, cultural materials, and annotated suggestions for further reading that now include websites.

Key updates for this edition:

    • New chapter on 'The causes of war and the changing nature of violence in global politics'
    • New chapter on 'Technology and global politics'
    • Enhanced coverage of theory including post-positivist theories
    • Uses ‘levels of analysis’ framework throughout the text
    • New material on the financial crisis, BRIC and Iran

Introduction to Global Politics continues to be essential reading for students of political science, global politics and international relations.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Introduction to Global Politics
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. A visual tour of Introduction to Global Politics
  9. Prologue
  10. Part I Theory and global politics
    1. 1 Theoretical approaches to global politics
      1. What is theory and why do we need it?
      2. Many theories, many meanings
      3. Levels of analysis
        1. The individual
        2. The unit
        3. The global system
      4. Making sense of a complex world: theory and global politics
        1. The great debates: an introduction to different world views
          1. Realism versus liberalism
          2. Traditionalism versus science
          3. The “Third Debate”: postpositivism and constructivism
          4. The agent-structure problem
      5. “Anarchy is what states make of it”
        1. Marxism and critical theory
        2. Feminist international relations
      6. Conclusion
      7. Student activities
      8. Further reading
  11. Part II The past as prologue to the present
    1. 2 The evolution of the interstate system and alternative global political systems
      1. The emergence of the European interstate system
      2. The transition from Europe’s Middle Ages
      3. Machiavelli’s world: Italy’s city-states
      4. On the road to sovereignty
      5. From dynastic to popular sovereignty
      6. China: the Confucian empire
      7. Imperial China
      8. Asian versus Western values
      9. Western values
      10. Asian values
      11. Islam’s founding and expansion
      12. The Caliphate
      13. Cracks in the Islamic community
      14. Islam and Christendom: the Crusades
      15. The Ottoman Empire – Islam versus the West
      16. Conclusion
      17. Student activities
      18. Further reading
    2. 3 The world wars
      1. Events leading to the Great War
        1. German unification and Europe’s diplomatic revolution
        2. Arms races, nationalism, and the Balkan imbroglio
        3. Crisis diplomacy
        4. The final descent to war
      2. Explaining the outbreak of World War One
        1. Individual-level explanations
        2. Unit-level explanations
        3. Global system-level explanations
      3. The Peace of Versailles
        1. Woodrow Wilson and the Fourteen Points
        2. Versailles and the principle of national self-determination
      4. The failure of collective security
      5. Appeasement and its consequences
      6. On the road to Pearl Harbor
      7. Individual-level explanations
      8. Unit-level explanations
      9. System-level explanations
      10. Conclusion
      11. Student activities
      12. Further reading
    3. 4 The Cold War
      1. Explaining the origins of the ColdWar
        1. Individual-level explanations: Stalin, Churchill, Truman, and Mao
        2. Unit-level explanations
          1. Communism versus capitalism
          2. The Soviet Union: security and ideology
        3. System-level explanations
          1. Bipolarity and the breakdown of Soviet-America n cooperation
          2. Spheres of influence and Eastern Europe
          3. The division of Germany
        4. Interpreting the beginning of the Cold War
      2. The Cold War spreads and deepens
        1. Containment
        2. Militarizing the Cold War
          1. NSC-68
          2. The “loss of China”
          3. The Korean War
          4. McCarthyism at home
          5. The Vietnam War
      3. The Cold War winds down
      4. The end of the Cold War
        1. The Gorbachev reforms and the resolution of key issues
        2. Explaining the end of the Cold War
      5. Russia after the Cold War
      6. Conclusion
      7. Student activities
      8. Further reading
    4. 5 The global south
      1. Europe’s empires
        1. The early conquerors: Spain and Portugal
        2. Holland
        3. France and Britain
        4. Late imperialism
      2. The decolonization of Asia and Africa
        1. India: from colony to great power
          1. Gandhi and India’s decolonization movement
          2. Decolonization in Asia after World War Two
          3. The Kashmir dispute
          4. Indonesia
        2. Decolonization in Africa
          1. British Africa
          2. French Africa
          3. Portuguese Africa
      3. The politics of nonalignment, nation building, and economic development
        1. Nonalignment
        2. Modernization and postcolonial theory
        3. Failed and failing states
        4. Others at risk of state failure
      4. The BRICs and global governance
        1. An economic giant awakens
        2. China from Mao to Deng
        3. China’s economy today
        4. Chinese-American trade relations
      5. Conclusion
      6. Student activities
      7. Further reading
    5. 6 Globalization: the new frontier
      1. Features of globalization
        1. The spread of communication and information technologies
        2. The declining importance of territory
        3. The spread of knowledge and skills and the participation explosion
        4. The global triumph of capitalism and the emergence of a global market
        5. The privatization of public functions
        6. The spread of global culture
        7. The spread of democracy
        8. The emergence of global civil society
        9. Diffusion of global power
        10. The changing nature of security
        11. The proliferation and deepening of nonstate identities and loyalties
      2. The historical roots of globalization
      3. Competing perspectives on globalization
      4. The globalization debate
      5. The anti-globalizers
      6. The pro-globalizers
      7. The state in decline?
      8. The limits of sovereignty
      9. Conclusion
      10. Student activities
      11. Further reading
  12. Part III Living dangerously in a dangerous world
    1. 7 Great issues in contemporary global politics
      1. The nuclear proliferation regime
        1. Dangers of horizontal proliferation
        2. India and Pakistan
        3. North Korea and Iran
      2. China and the United States: a new bipolarity?
        1. From hostility to engagement
        2. Strategic partners or strategic rivals?
        3. Taiwan
        4. Military rivalry
        5. North Korea and Iran
        6. Human rights
        7. Resource rivalry
      3. Israel and Palestine
        1. Palestine after World War One
        2. Israel: the founding
        3. The Suez War
        4. The Six Day War
        5. From crisis to crisis: the Yom Kippui War, Lebanon, and Camp David
        6. Oslo and the intifadas
        7. The Gaza imbroglio
        8. Impediments to peace
        9. US-Israeli relations: from Bush to Obama
      4. Militant Islam: the “Green Menace”
        1. Fundamentalism
        2. The Iranian revolution and its consequences
          1. The hostage crisis
          2. Saddam Hussein and the Iran-Iraq War
      5. 9/11 and the War on Terrorism
        1. Afghanistan and Iraq
          1. The Afghan background
          2. The Soviet invasion and Islamic resistance
          3. Al Qaeda and Islamic terrorism
          4. The Afghan War
        2. The Iraq dimension
          1. The birth of modern Iraq
          2. The Persian Gulf War
          3. The Iraq War
      6. The changing Middle East
      7. Conclusion
      8. Student activities
      9. Further reading
    2. 8 The causes of war and the changing nature of global violence
      1. The quest for power and influence
      2. The causes of interstate war
        1. The individual level: human nature and psychology
          1. The desire for power
          2. Innate aggression
          3. Decision makers and war
        2. The unit level: foreign policy and war
          1. Bureaucratic and organizational politics
          2. Culture
          3. Regime type
          4. Economic systems and war
          5. Nationalism and public opinion
          6. Domestic politics: war as a diversion from domestic issues
        3. The system level and war
          1. Distribution of power
          2. Security dilemmas and arms races
      3. The causes of intrastate war
        1. Individual-level explanations
        2. Unit-level explanations
        3. The fallout of interstate conflict: the global level of analysis
      4. Managing intrastate war
        1. Foreign intervention
        2. Power-sharing agreements
        3. Physical separation
      5. Irregular warfare
        1. Guerrillas, anti-colonial struggles, and revolutionary war
        2. Global terrorism
          1. Historical terrorism
          2. Contemporary terrorism
      6. Conclusion
      7. Student activities
      8. Further reading
    3. 9 Technology and the changing face of warfare
      1. War as an extension of politics
      2. On the road to total war: the world wars
      3. Technology and interstate war
        1. Technology and the conduct of World War One
        2. Technology and the conduct of World War Two
        3. Technology and the Cold War standoff
      4. Strategies in a nuclear age
        1. Elements of deterrence
        2. Nuclear deterrence in the Cold War
        3. Nuclear deterrence today
      5. The era of smart weapons
      6. Cyberwar
      7. Conclusion
      8. Student activities
      9. Further reading
  13. Part IV Global actors and institutions
    1. 10 International law and organization and the quest for peace
      1. The “law of nations”
        1. Sources and evolution of international law
        2. The just war tradition
          1. Jus ad helium
          2. Jus in hello
      2. International organizations
      3. The League of Nations
        1. Origins and controversies
        2. The League’s record in securing peace
      4. The United Nations
        1. Early expectations
        2. UN organs
        3. Economic and social issues
        4. The UN and the maintenance of peace
          1. Maintaining peace during the Cold War
          2. Maintaining peace after the Cold War
        5. UN budgetary woes
        6. The UN and the future
      5. Regional international organizations
        1. The European Union
          1. From the end of World War Two to the Schuman Plan
          2. The continuing process of European integration
          3. A European constitution?
        2. Other regional organizations
      6. International organizations and peace
      7. Conclusion
      8. Student activities
      9. Further reading
    2. 11 Human rights: the individual in global politics
      1. The Holocaust and the genocide convention
      2. The Nuremberg precedent and the evolution of international criminal tribunals
        1. The Nuremberg and Japanese trials
        2. Ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia
        3. The Rwandan genocide and civil war in Sierra Leone
        4. Cambodia’s “killing fields”
        5. The International Criminal Court
        6. The doctrine of universal jurisdiction
      3. Individual rights under international law
        1. Sources of human rights
        2. The elaboration of human rights 3/
        3. Explanations of human rights abuses
        4. Amnesty International
      4. Women’s rights as human rights
        1. Gender (in)equality
        2. Violence against women
        3. Reproductive independence
        4. Should women have equal rights . . . everywhere?
      5. Conclusion
      6. Student activities
      7. Further reading
  14. Part V Global issues
    1. 12 Human security
      1. The idea of human security
      2. Poverty and economic development
        1. Global dimensions of poverty
        2. International institutions and global poverty
        3. Debt relief
        4. Foreign aid and investment
        5. Access to markets
      3. Transnational crime
        1. Drug trafficking
        2. Responses to drug trafficking
        3. Money laundering
      4. The arms trade
        1. The global arms market
        2. The black market in weapons of mass destruction
        3. Responses to the global arms trade
      5. The global movement of persons
        1. Refugees
        2. Undocumented aliens
        3. Immigration and demography
        4. Human trafficking
      6. Globalized diseases
        1. Contemporary epidemics and pandemics
        2. SARS, polio, and avian influenza
        3. Doctors Without Borders
        4. Medical tourism
      7. Conclusion
      8. Student activities
      9. Further reading
    2. 13 Identity politics: nationalism, religion, and ethnicity
      1. Multiple identities
        1. Conflicting identities as threats to national unity
        2. Divided loyalties?
        3. “We” versus “them” in global politics
        4. Identities and technological change
      2. Manipulating identities
      3. Nationalism
        1. The bases of nationalism
        2. Nations, states, and nation-states
      4. Religious identities
      5. Ethnic identities
      6. The brutal break-up of Yugoslavia
      7. Approaches to culture
        1. A clash of civilizations?
        2. Alternative cultural models
      8. Conclusion
      9. Student activities
      10. Further reading
    3. 14 International political economy
      1. The beginnings of a global economy
      2. Theories of political economy
        1. Mercantilism
        2. Economic liberalism
        3. Marxism
          1. The evolution of Marxism
          2. World systems theory
          3. Dependencia theory
      3. The Great Depression
        1. The Depression begins
        2. The Depression spreads
      4. The Bretton Woods institutions
        1. The International Monetary Fund
        2. The World Bank
        3. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization
          1. The steel case
          2. Genetically modified crops
      5. Hegemonic stability
      6. Transnational corporations: engines of global capitalism
        1. The global reach of TNCs
        2. Criticisms of TNCs
        3. Reforming TNCs
      7. States and markets
      8. The Asian contagion
      9. The American contagion
      10. Conclusion
      11. Student activities
      12. Further reading
    4. 15 The environment: a global collective good
      1. Collective goods and collective fates
      2. Population and environment
        1. Population trends
        2. Increasing conflict?
      3. Defusing the population bomb
        1. Deteriorating global ecology
        2. Global energy politics
          1. Fossil fuels and economic development
          2. Fossil fuels and the environment
        3. Too little food
        4. Vanishing forests and encroaching deserts
        5. Water: dying seas and drying wells
          1. Fishing
          2. Fresh water
        6. Environmental IGOs
        7. Greenpeace
      4. Conclusion
      5. Student activities
      6. Further reading
  15. Part VI And tomorrow?
    1. Epilogue: A future dimly seen
      1. Alternative futures
        1. A globalized world
        2. A world of liberal institutions
        3. A world in chaos
        4. A realist world
      2. Conclusion: an uncertain future
      3. Student activities
      4. Further reading
  16. Notes
  17. Glossary
  18. List of illustrations
  19. Index