Figure

350–1450

571–632

632

1095–1271

1301–1922

1494

Emergence of the European state

The Prophet Muhammad's life

Shia–Sunni split begins

European Crusades

Ottoman Empire

France's Charles VIII invades Italy

2

The evolution of the interstate system and alternative global political systems

Following the American Revolution, the Thirteen Colonies were loosely bound by the Articles of Confederation (1781) under which each “retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence,” established “a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare.”1 Under these ...

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