High-voltage protection, 104
Hot-spot heating, 55–56, 59
Household appliances, use of photovoltaic
technology, 34
Housing and Urban Development Department,
Title 1 loan program, 163
Hybrid systems, 82
Hydroelectricity, 6, 12, 13, 148
Hydrogen as substitute for oil-based fuels, 12
I
Iceberg principle, 167
IEEE 929-2000 standard, 11
IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) inverters, 104
Impurities on solar modules, 59
Incentive programs, 8, 14, 163
Industry, photovoltaic
barriers to growth of, 13
global growth of, 13–15, 34
Infrastructure for photovoltaic systems, 16
Ingots, 34, 43
Installation, solar, 28–30, 153
Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverters, 104
Insulation of electrical components, 57
Insulators, 35–36
Integrated systems, 10
Integrators, 154, 155
Intensity enhancement of solar cells, 53
Interconnection agreement, 72–73
Internal collection efficiency, 52
Inverters, 99–111. See also specific types of inverters
for AC systems, 136
battery chargers, 108
buying an inverter, 105–106
cooling of, 107–108
DC to AC power conversion, 81, 104
defined, 4, 78, 87
efficiency of, 107
grid-connected, 101–102, 104
life of, 159, 159 f
off-grid, 102–104
operation methods, 104
output power, 106
overview, 99–101
performance degradation in, 158
role of, 100–106
self-commutated, 105
sizing of, 144–145
stackability of, 109
for standalone systems, 146–147
surge capacity, 107
transformerless, 153
types of, 101–104
utility-interactive, 70, 71
Irradiance, 23
Irradiation, 23
Italy, solar energy growth in, 13–14
I-V curve, 54–55
J
Japan, solar energy growth in, 14
J-boxes (junction boxes), 58, 136 f
Junction diode, 48
K
Kilowatt-hours (kWh), 8, 11, 74
Kilowatt peak power (kWp), 176
L
Laboratory solar cells vs. industry requirements, 41–42
Laminates, photovoltaic, 92–93
Lapped wafer technology, 42
Large-area devices technology, 42
Laser-based processing of solar cells, 53
Laser-grooved, buried-contact solar cells, 42
Lead-acid gel batteries, 116–117, 123
Lead-acid grid-plate batteries with fluid electrolyte,
117, 119–120
Lead batteries, 116–117, 116 f , 121–122
Leasing photovoltaic systems, 155
L-feet, 90
Life cycle of photovoltaics, 58–60, 67, 75, 75 f , 158, 158 f
Life span
of batteries, 121, 124
of generators, 127
Light
effect in solar cells, 38
nature of, 25
208 INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOVOLTAICS

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