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Introduction to Wireless Systems by Frederick C. Berry, David R. Voltmer, Bruce A. Ferguson, Philip S. DiPiazza, Bruce A. Black

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Chapter 3. Channel Characteristics

Introduction

In the preceding chapter we developed the range equation assuming a free-space environment—that is, a perfect vacuum—with the nearest objects (other than the receiving antenna) being infinitely far away. Apart from applications such as communication between satellites, most wireless systems operate in a cluttered environment. We will refer to this environment as a “real-world” environment, since it represents the world in which we live. Unlike free space, a real-world environment includes an atmosphere through which radio waves must propagate and a variety of objects such as the Earth’s surface, trees, and buildings.

The atmosphere and objects between and around the transmitter and receiver significantly ...

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