1. USAID, Guide to the Drivers of Violent Extremism, February 2009,

2. Farhana Qazi, “The Mujahidaat: Tracing the Early Female Warriors of Islam,” in Women, Gender, and Terrorism, eds. Caron E. Gentry and Laura Sjoberg (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 2011).

3. Anna Erelle, Undercover Jihadi Bride: Inside Islamic State’s Recruitment Networks (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2012).


1. According to British author and historian Victoria Schofield, “What Radcliffe did was conform to the suggested boundaries [that had] already been worked out in February 1964 before the [British] Cabinet Mission arrived in India.” Email correspondence, February 2015.

2. Joseph ...

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