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IoT: Building Arduino-Based Projects by Drew Van Duren, Brian Russell, Pradeeka Seneviratne, Peter Waher

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Chapter 5. The MQTT Protocol

One of the major problems we encountered when we looked at the HTTP, UPnP, and CoAP protocols is how to cross firewall boundaries. Firewalls not only block incoming connection attempts, but they also hide a home or office network behind a single IP address. Unless the firewall blocks outgoing connections, which it does only if explicitly configured to do so, we can cross firewall boundaries if all the endpoints in a conversation act as clients to a common message broker that lies outside of the firewall and is therefore accessible to everybody. The message broker acts as a server, but all it does is relay messages between clients. One protocol that uses message brokers is the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT ...

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