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Java Concurrency in Practice by Doug Lea, David Holmes, Joseph Bowbeer, Joshua Bloch, Tim Peierls, Brian Goetz

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Chapter 6. Task Execution

Most concurrent applications are organized around the execution of tasks: abstract, discrete units of work. Dividing the work of an application into tasks simplifies program organization, facilitates error recovery by providing natural transaction boundaries, and promotes concurrency by providing a natural structure for parallelizing work.

6.1. Executing Tasks in Threads

The first step in organizing a program around task execution is identifying sensible task boundaries. Ideally, tasks are independent activities: work that doesn't depend on the state, result, or side effects of other tasks. Independence facilitates concurrency, as independent tasks can be executed in parallel if there are adequate processing resources. ...

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