Advanced metal–ceramic joining techniques for orthopaedic applications
G. Sala, Aerospace Engineering Department, Italy
The types of metals and ceramics to be joined, their application, features and characteristics are preliminarily summarized. The main challenges are pointed out and discussed, possible solutions envisaged. As a consequence, general methods for joining metals to ceramics are presented. Their strong and weak points and possible outcomes are presented. The so-called direct bonding methods are discussed, in particular solid-phase, non-fusion welding. Strengths and weaknesses of techniques and materials are considered, as well as further concerns such as biocompatibility, thermal/chemical performances and long-term ...