Jordan Canonical Form

Book description

Jordan Canonical Form (JCF) is one of the most important, and useful, concepts in linear algebra. The JCF of a linear transformation, or of a matrix, encodes all of the structural information about that linear transformation, or matrix. This book is a careful development of JCF. After beginning with background material, we introduce Jordan Canonical Form and related notions: eigenvalues, (generalized) eigenvectors, and the characteristic and minimum polynomials. We decide the question of diagonalizability, and prove the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Then we present a careful and complete proof of the fundamental theorem: Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over the field of complex numbers C, and let T : V → V be a linear transformation. Then T has a Jordan Canonical Form. This theorem has an equivalent statement in terms of matrices: Let A be a square matrix with complex entries. Then A is similar to a matrix J in Jordan Canonical Form, i.e., there is an invertible matrix P and a matrix J in Jordan Canonical Form with A = PJP-1. We further present an algorithm to find P and J, assuming that one can factor the characteristic polynomial of A. In developing this algorithm we introduce the eigenstructure picture (ESP) of a matrix, a pictorial representation that makes JCF clear. The ESP of A determines J, and a refinement, the labeled eigenstructure picture (ℓESP) of A, determines P as well. We illustrate this algorithm with copious examples, and provide numerous exercises for the reader.

Product information

  • Title: Jordan Canonical Form
  • Author(s): Steven H. Weintraub
  • Release date: December 2009
  • Publisher(s): Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781608452514