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Just Enough C/C++ Programming by Guy W. Lecky-Thompson

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IO Libraries

All input and output functionality in C++ is based around the concept of streams. Each stream maps to a physical device in an abstracted fashion. It can be a keyboard, printer, screen, or file. The <iostream> header file contains all the definitions required to use the library.

This includes some basic classes, types, manipulators, and standard stream objects for use in derived programs. The standard stream objects usually included are cin (input) and cout (output), as well as cerr and clog.

In addition, there is a class for manipulating files (fstream) and one for treating strings as if they were streams (stringstream). There are also some variations of these for unidirectional streams that can perform only input or only output, ...

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